Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter July 4, 2018

Tribological properties of diamond-like carbon films deposited by vacuum arc

Ying Ren and Haikuo Wang


Conventional artificial hip joints with metal-on-metal pairings are subject to wear resulting in a large number of metal wear particles, limiting the lifetime of implants. In order to improve the wear protection of artificial hip joints, diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with high quality have been synthesized by a vacuum arc adjustable from anodic to cathodic operation mode at a DC bias to the substrate. The influence of the bias on the wear behavior examined with disc-on-disc and cavitation erosion testing was investigated. DLC film with a high density (3.03 g cm−3) and low wear rate (1.04 × 10−5 g h−1) could be deposited by vacuum arc at a DC bias (−750 V). Furthermore, no delamination was observed after the DLC-on-DLC tribopairs were tested under a high conducted load (300 N) and velocity (0.1 m s−1) for 55 h, which indicated DLC film at the bias of −750 V has good tribological properties.

*Correspondence address, Ying Ren, Department of Material Science & Engineering, Henan University of Technology, Lianhua Street, Zhengzhou 450001, P.R. China, Tel.: +086371-67758734, Fax: +086371-67758729, E-mail:


[1] H.Malchau, P.Herberts, T.Eisler, G.Garellick, P.Söderman: J. Bone Joint Surg.84 (2002) 220. 12479335 10.2106/00004623-200200002-00002 Search in Google Scholar

[2] H.P.Sieber, C.B.Reiker, P.Köttig: J. Bone Joint Surg. BR.81 (1999) 4650. 10068001 10.1302/0301-620X.81B1.9047 Search in Google Scholar

[3] V.K.Raghunathan, M.Devey, S.Hawkins, L.Hails, S.A.Davis, S.Mann, I.T.Chang, E.Ingham, A.Malhas, D.J.Vaus, J.D.Lane, C.P.Case: Biomaterials34 (2013) 3355933570. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.01.085 Search in Google Scholar

[4] T.T.Liao, Q.Y.Deng, S.S.Li, X.Li, L.Ji, Q.Wang, Y.X.Leng, N.Hung: ACS Biomater. Sci. Eng.3 (2017) 530539. 10.1021/acsbiomaterials.6b00618 Search in Google Scholar

[5] J.L.Tipper, P.J.Firkins, A.A.Besong, P.S.M.Barbour, J.Nevelos, M.H.Stone, E.Ingham, J.Fisher: Wear250 (2001) 120128. 10.1016/S0043-1648(01)00653-6 Search in Google Scholar

[6] A.Liu, L.Richards, C.L.Bladen, E.Ingham, J.Fisher, J.L.Tipper: Acta Biomater.23 (2015) 3851. 26004221 10.1016/j.actbio.2015.05.016 Search in Google Scholar

[7] H.L.Anissian, A.Stark, A.Gustafson, V.Good, I.C.Clarke: Acta Orthop. Scand.70 (1999) 578582. 10665722 10.3109/17453679908997845 Search in Google Scholar

[8] M.T.Mathewa, C.Nagellia, R.Pourzalb, A.Fischerb, M.P.Laurenta, J.J.Jacobsa, M.A.Wimmera: J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater.29 (2014) 199212. 24099949 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2013.08.018 Search in Google Scholar

[9] H.Song, L.Ji, H.X.Li, X.H.Liu, H.D.Zhou, L.Liu, J.M.Chen: Tribol. Int.95 (2016) 298305. 10.1016/j.triboint.2015.11.033 Search in Google Scholar

[10] R.Hauert: Diamond Relat. Mater.12 (2003) 583589. 10.1016/S0925-9635(03)00081-5 Search in Google Scholar

[11] D.M.Vasconcelos, S.G.Santos, M.Lamghari, M.A.Barbosa: Biomaterials84 (2016) 262275. 26851391 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2016.01.046 Search in Google Scholar

[12] M.Friedrich, J.Kinder, M.Büteführ: Prakt. Metallogr.53 (2016) 295317. 10.3139/147.110391 Search in Google Scholar

[13] J.Black, G.Hastings, in: Chapman & Hall (Eds.), Handbook of Biomaterial Properties, London (1998) 135144. Search in Google Scholar

[14] N.Babu, N.Karunakaran, V.Balasubramanian: Int. J. Mater. Res.108 (2017) 6875. 10.3139/146.111448 Search in Google Scholar

[15] Y.Liao, E.Hoffman, M.Wimmer, A.Fischer, J.Jacobs, L.Marks: Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.15 (2013) 746756. 10.1039/c2cp42968c Search in Google Scholar

[16] M.A.H.Geprell, M.Niinomi: J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater.20 (2013) 407415. 23507261 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2012.11.014 Search in Google Scholar

[17] D.Choudhury, T.Morita, Y.Sawae, J.M.Lackner, M.Towler, I.Krupka: Diamond Relat. Mater.61 (2016) 5669. 10.1016/j.diamond.2015.11.011 Search in Google Scholar

[18] K.Bobzin, N.Bagcivan, S.Theiß, R.Weiß, U.Depner, T.Troß-mann, J.Ellermeier, M.Oechsner: Int. J. Mater. Res.103 (2012) 774782. 10.3139/146.110763 Search in Google Scholar

[19] Y.Ren, I.Erdmann, B.Küzün, F.Deuerler, V.Buck: Diamond Relat. Mater.23 (2012) 184188. 10.1016/j.diamond.2011.12.045 Search in Google Scholar

[20] Y.Ren, I.Erdmann, V.Khlopyanova, F.Deuerler, V.Buck: Diamond Relat. Mater.44 (2014) 3843. 10.1016/j.diamond.2014.01.011 Search in Google Scholar

[21] H.Song, L.Ji, H.X.Li, X.H.Liu, H.D.Zhou, L.Liu, J.M.Chen: Tribol. Int.95 (2016) 298305. 10.1016/j.triboint.2015.11.033 Search in Google Scholar

[22] S.Reuter, B.Weßkamp, R.Büscher, A.Fischer, B.Barden, F.Löer, V.Buck: Wear261 (2006) 419425. 10.1016/j.wear.2005.12.009 Search in Google Scholar

[23] B.Stamm, B.Küzün, O.Filipov, S.Reuter, I.Erdmann, F.Deuerler, D.Krix, K.Huba, H.Nienhaus, V.Buck: Mat.-wiss.u. Werkstofftech40 (2009) 98100. 10.1002/mawe.200800374 Search in Google Scholar

[24] X.D.Sui, J.Y.Liu, S.T.Zhang, J.Yang, J.Y.Hao: Appl. Surf. Sci.439 (2018) 2432. 10.1016/j.apsusc.2017.12.266 Search in Google Scholar

[25] M.C.Salvadori, D.R.Martins, M.Cattani: Surf. Coat. Technol.200 (2006) 51195122. 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2005.05.030 Search in Google Scholar

[26] Y.Luo, T.Yang, Q.Liu: Int. J. Mater. Res.107 (2016) 631636. 10.3139/146.111385 Search in Google Scholar

[27] M.Huang, Z.Chen, M.Wang, Y.Li, Y.Wang: Surf. Eng.32 (2016) 284288. 10.1179/1743294415Y.0000000039 Search in Google Scholar

[28] S.Jing, Y.Bai, F.Qin, J.Xiao: Surf. Eng.33 (2017) 592596. 10.1080/02670844.2016.1143213 Search in Google Scholar

[29] C.H.Hsu, K.L.Chen, Z.H.Li, C.Y.Su, C.K.Lin: Thin Solid Films518 (2010) 38253829. 10.1016/j.tsf.2010.02.012 Search in Google Scholar

[30] K.Zhang, M.Wen, Q.N.Meng, C.Q.Hu, X.Li, C.Liu, W.T.Zheng: Surf. Coat. Technol.212 (2012) 185191. 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2012.09.046 Search in Google Scholar

[31] H.Li, T.Xu, C.Wang, J.Chen, H.Zhou, H.Liu: Tribol. Lett.19 (2005) 231238. 10.1007/s11249-005-6150-8 Search in Google Scholar

[32] C.Donnet, A.Erdemir (Eds.), Tribology of Diamond-like Carbon Films: Fundamentals and Applications (2008) 500502. Search in Google Scholar

[33] A.C.Ferrari, J.Robertson: Phys. Rev. B63 (2001) R121405R121408. 10.1103/PhysRevB.64.075414 Search in Google Scholar

[34] S.Michaelson: J. Appl. Phys.107 (2010) 093521. 10.1063/1.3359714 Search in Google Scholar

[35] M.Hakamatsuka, H.Yoshimura, M.Tachibana: Carbon49 (2011) 18691872. 10.1016/j.carbon.2011.01.009 Search in Google Scholar

[36] A.C.Ferrari: Diamond Relat. Mater.11 (2002) 10531061. 10.1016/S0925-9635(01)00730-0 Search in Google Scholar

[37] H.Okubo, S.Kawada, S.Watanabe, S.Sasaki: Tribol. Trans. (2016) 19. 10.1080/10402004.2016.1272731 Search in Google Scholar

[38] R.Hauert: Tribol. Int.37 (2004) 9911003. 10.1016/j.triboint.2004.07.017 Search in Google Scholar

[39] H.X.Li, T.Xu, J.M.Chen, H.D.Zhou, H.W.Liu: Tribology24 (2004) 15. 10.1016/j.apsusc.2003.12.013 Search in Google Scholar

[40] H.Ronkaine, J.Likonen, J.Koskinen: Surf. Coat. Technol.79 (1996) 8794. 10.1016/0257-8972(95)02433-6 Search in Google Scholar

[41] N.Ravi, R.Markandeya, S.V.Joshi: Surf. Eng.33 (2017) 719. 10.1179/1743294415Y.0000000005 Search in Google Scholar

[42] K.C.Ludema: ‘Sliding and adhesive wear’, in: ‘ASM metals handbook’, Materials Park, OH, ASM International, 18 (1992) 436449. Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2017-12-11
Accepted: 2018-02-05
Published Online: 2018-07-04
Published in Print: 2018-07-12

© 2018, Carl Hanser Verlag, München