Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter October 4, 2019

The effect of thermomechanical treatment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of high Mn–Cr austenitic steels

Hedayat Mohammad Soltani, Mohsen Asadi Asadabad and Malek Naderi


It was shown that new high-manganese austenitic steels can be used as an alternative to conventional Ni–Cr austenitic steels especially in vacuum vessels. In this study, a nickel-free austenitic steel with chemical composition of 24 wt.% Mn, 10 wt.% Cr, 0.13 wt.% C and trace elements of Si, Ti, V, W, and Al was hot-rolled at 950 and 1100 °C to different strains. Microscopic observations, X-ray diffraction, tensile, impact and microhardness tests were performed to characterize the microstructural aspects and mechanical properties. A small amount of chromium carbide was found on the grain boundaries of this fully austenitic steel. The results showed that the microstructure and mechanical properties of hot rolled manganese austenitic steel are affected by the dynamic recrystallization and twinning phenomena. Also, by changing the grain morphology from equiaxed to elongated, strength and hardness increased, and the impact toughness and ductility were reduced.

Correspondence address, Assistant Professor Dr. Mohsen Asadi Asadabad, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, North Karegar, Tehran, P.O. Box: 14395-836, Iran, Tel: +98 3138912566, Fax: +98 3138912613, email:


[1] D.S.Bae, S.P.Lee, Y.R.Cho, H.Takahashi: J. Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China.21 (2011) 58. 10.1016/S1003-6326(11)61061-3 Search in Google Scholar

[2] D.S.Bae, S.H.Nahm, H.M.Lee, H.Kinoshita, T.Shibayama, H.Takahashi: J. Nucl Mater.329–333 (2004) 1038. 10.1016/j.jnucmat.2004.04.131 Search in Google Scholar

[3] S.Saito, K.Fukaya, S.Ishiyama, M.Eto, I.Sato, M.Kusuhashi, T.Hatakeyama, H.Takahashi, M.Kikuchi: J Nucl Mater.283–287 (2000) 593. 10.1016/S0022-3115(00)00088-X Search in Google Scholar

[4] D.S.Bae, S.P.Lee, J.K.Lee, U.B.Baek, S.H.Nahm, H.Takahashi: J. Fusion Eng Des.87 (2012) 1025. 10.1016/j.fusengdes.2012.02.077 Search in Google Scholar

[5] S.R.Chen, H.A.Davies, W.M.Rainforth: J. Acta Mater.47 (18) (1999) 4555. 10.1016/S1359-6454(99)00334-1 Search in Google Scholar

[6] S.Yan, X.Liu, W.J.Liu, H.Lan, H.Wu: J. MSEA.640 (2015) 137. 10.1016/j.msea.2015.05.058 Search in Google Scholar

[7] N.Igata, T.Fujiga, H.Yumoto: J. Nucl Mater.179–181 (1991) 656. 10.1016/0022-3115(91)90174-6 Search in Google Scholar

[8] V.Coen, H.Kolbe, L.Orecchia, M. DellaRossa: J. FUSION ENG DES.14 (1991) 309. 10.1016/0920-3796(91)90014-H Search in Google Scholar

[9] G.L.Edgemon, P.F.Tortoreili, G.E.C.Bell: J. Nucl Mater.191–194 (1992) 997. 10.1016/0022-3115(92)90624-T Search in Google Scholar

[10] M.Onozuka, T.Saida, S.Hirai, M.Kusuhashi, I.Sato, T.Hatakeyama: J. Nucl Mater.255 (1998) 128. 10.1016/S0022-3115(98)00031-2 Search in Google Scholar

[11] M.Fodefiki, H.Ledbetter: ‏J. Magn. Magn. Mater.110 (1992) 185. 10.1016/0304-8853(92)90031-I Search in Google Scholar

[12] P.Sahu, S.K.Shee, A.S.Hamada, L.Rovatti, T.Sahu, B.Mahato, S. GhoshChowdhury, D.A.Porter, L.P.Karjalainen: J. Acta Mater.60 (2012) 6907. 10.1016/j.actamat.2012.07.055 Search in Google Scholar

[13] G.E.Totten, Steel Heat Treatment Handbook, Metallurgy and technologies, Second edition, CRC PRESS (2006). 10.1201/9781482293029 Search in Google Scholar

[14] R.L.Klueh, P.J.Maziasz, and E.H.Lee: J. MSEA.102 (1988) 115. 10.1016/0025-5416(88)90539-3 Search in Google Scholar

[15] S.Lee, C.Y.Lee, Y.K.Lee: J. Alloys Compd.628 (2015) 46. 10.1016/j.jallcom.2014.12.134 Search in Google Scholar

[16] H.Idrissi, L.Ryelandt, M.Veron, D.Schryvers, P.J.Jacques: J. Scr. Mater.60 (2009) 941. 10.1016/j.scriptamat.2009.01.040 Search in Google Scholar

[17] Y.-K.Lee, S.-J.Lee, J.Han: J. Mater. Sci. Technol.32 (2016) 1. 10.1080/02670836.2015.1114252 Search in Google Scholar

[18] A.S.Hamada, L.P.Karjalainen, R.D.K.Misra, J.Talonen: J. MSEA.559 (2013) 336. 10.1016/j.msea.2012.08.108 Search in Google Scholar

[19] S.-J.Lee, H.Fujii, K.Ushioda: J. Alloys Compd.749 (2018) 776. 10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.03.296 Search in Google Scholar

[20] S.Allain, J.-P.Chateau, O.Bouaziz, S.Migot, N.Guelton: J. MSEA.387–389 (2004) 158. 10.1016/j.msea.2004.01.059 Search in Google Scholar

[21] Y.S.Zhang, X.Lu, X.Tian, Z.Qin: J. MSEA.334 (2002) 19. 10.1016/S0921-5093(01)01781-6 Search in Google Scholar

[22] A.F.Padilha, P.R.Rios: J. ISIJ Int.42 (2002) 325. 10.2355/isijinternational.42.325 Search in Google Scholar

[23] H.J.Goldschmidt, Interstitial alloys, Butterworth & Co. (Publishers) Ltd. (1967). 10.1007/978-1-4899-5880-8 Search in Google Scholar

[24] D.A.Porter, K.E.Easterling, M.Sherif, Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys, Third Edition, CRC Press (2009). 10.1201/9781439883570 Search in Google Scholar

[25] S.Buytoz: J. Mater. Lett.60 (2006) 605. 10.1016/j.matlet.2005.09.046 Search in Google Scholar

[26] E.Karantzalis, A.Lekatou, H.Mavros: Int J. Cast Metal Res.22 (2009) 448. 10.1179/174313309X436637 Search in Google Scholar

[27] Y.Li, Y.Gao, B.Xiao, T.Min, Y.Yang, S.Ma, D.Yi: J. Alloys Compd.509 (2011) 5242. 10.1016/j.jallcom.2011.02.009 Search in Google Scholar

[28] H.O.Pierson, Handbook of refractory carbides and nitrides, Properties, Characteristics, Processing and Applications, Noyes Publications (1996). 10.1016/B978-081551392-6.50001-5 Search in Google Scholar

[29] K.Wieczerzak, P.Bala, R.Dziurka, T.Tokarski, G.Cios, T.Koziel, L.Gondek: J. Alloys Compd.698 (2017) 673. 10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.12.252 Search in Google Scholar

[30] F.J.Humphreys, M.Hatherly, Recrystallization and related annealing phenomena, Second edition, Elsevier (2004). 10.1016/B978-008044164-1/50005-0 Search in Google Scholar

[31] H.J.McQueen, S.Yue, N.D.Ryan, E.Fry: J Mater Process Technol.53 (1995) 293. 10.1016/0924-0136(95)01987-P Search in Google Scholar

[32] E.I.Poliak, J.J.Jonas: J. ISIJ.43 (2003) 684. 10.2355/isijinternational.43.684 Search in Google Scholar

[33] X.He, Z.Yu, X.Lai: Comput. Mater. Sci.44 (2008) 760. 10.1016/j.commatsci.2008.05.021 Search in Google Scholar

[34] H.K.D.H.Bhadeshia: J MATER SCI TECHNOL.26 (2010) 379. 10.1179/026708310X12635619988302 Search in Google Scholar

[35] D.Sui, H.Zhang, H.Zhu, Z.Zhu, Z.Cui: J. Iron Steel Res Int.24 (2017) 529. 10.1016/S1006-706X(17)30080-8 Search in Google Scholar

[36] P.Hahner: J. Acta Mater.44 (1996) 2345. 10.1016/1359-6454(95)00364-9 Search in Google Scholar

[37] G.Laplanche, A.Kostka, O.M.Horst, G.Eggeler, E.P.George: J. ACTA MATER.118 (2016) 152. 10.1016/j.actamat.2016.07.038 Search in Google Scholar

[38] R.Mohammadzadeh, M.Mohammadzadeh: J. MSEA.747 (2019) 265. 10.1016/j.msea.2018.11.085 Search in Google Scholar

[39] A.Irastorza-Landa, N.Grilli1, H.V.Swygenhoven: J. Model. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng.25 (2017) 055010. 10.1088/1361-651X/aa6e24 Search in Google Scholar

[40] U.Messerschmidt, Dislocation Dynamics During Plastic Deformation, Springer Series in Materials Science, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (2010). 10.1007/978-3-642-03177-9 Search in Google Scholar

[41] M.A.Meyers, K.K.Chawla, Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Cambridge university press, (2009). 10.1017/CBO9780511810947 Search in Google Scholar

[42] A.Ma, F.Roters: J. ACTA MATER.52 (2004) 3603. 10.1016/j.actamat.2004.04.012 Search in Google Scholar

[43] A.Ma, F.Roters, D.Raabe: J. Acta Mater.54 (2006) 2169. 10.1016/j.actamat.2006.01.005 Search in Google Scholar

[44] G.Z.Voyiadjis, F.H.Abed: J. Arch. Mech.57 (2005) 299. Search in Google Scholar

[45] Y.S.Chen, W.Choi, S.Papanikolaou, J.P.Sethna: J. Phys Rev Lett.105 (2010) 105501. PMid:20867529; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.105501 Search in Google Scholar

[46] S.Sandfeld, M.Zaiser: J. Model. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng.23 (2015) 065005. 10.1088/0965-0393/23/6/065005 Search in Google Scholar

[47] G.Dhanaraj, K.Byrappa, V.Prasad, M.Dudley, Handbook of Crystal Growth, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (2010). 10.1007/978-3-540-74761-1 Search in Google Scholar

[48] A.Luft: J. PHYS STATUS SOLIDI B.49 (1970) 429. 10.1002/pssb.19700420143 Search in Google Scholar

[49] N.Igata, T.Fujiga, H.Yumoto: J. Nucl Mater.179–181 (1991) 656. 10.1016/0022-3115(91)90174-6 Search in Google Scholar

[50] B.Hwang, S.-J.Kim: J. MSEA.531 (2012) 182. 10.1016/j.msea.2011.10.047 Search in Google Scholar

[51] W.M.Dawson, F.R.Sale: J. Metall. Mater. Trans.8 (1977) 15. 10.1007/BF02677258 Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2018-12-16
Accepted: 2019-05-10
Published Online: 2019-10-04
Published in Print: 2019-10-16

© 2019, Carl Hanser Verlag, München