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Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter October 30, 2018

Investigations on the Microstructure-Property Relationship of NCM-Based Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

Untersuchungen zur Mikrostruktur-Eigenschafts-Beziehung NCM-basierter Elektroden für Lithium-Ionen-Batterien
  • D. Schmidt , M. Kleinbach , M. Kamlah and V. Knoblauch
From the journal Practical Metallography


The microstructure of a multi-material-electrode and in particular its porosity co-determines, to a significant extent, the energy and power density of a lithium-ion cell. Moderate and high degrees of densification with several intermediate stages were applied reaching porosities of up to 18 % in order to increase the theoretical energy density of NCM-based cathodes. By applying microscopic and material analysis methods, the microstructure development during the densification could be described and a direct relationship to the electrochemical performance of the electrodes could be demonstrated. Major microstructural changes in connection with a significant drop in performance at current rates ≥ 2C arise from applying densification with porosities of < 25 %. Then again, compactions of the NCM cathodes generating 20 – 22 % porosity offer the highest energy densities at moderate loads, i. e. current rates ≤ 1C.


Die Mikrostruktur einer Multi-Material-Elektrode, hierbei insbesondere deren Porosität, bestimmt die Energie- und Leistungsdichte einer Lithium-Ionen-Zelle entscheidend mit. Zur Steigerung der theoretischen Energiedichte NCM-basierter Kathoden wurden moderate und hohe Verdichtungsraten mit mehreren Zwischenstufen bis zu einer Porosität von 18 % generiert. Mit Hilfe mikroskopischer und materialanalytischer Verfahren konnte die Mikrostrukturentwicklung beim Verdichten beschrieben und ein direkter Zusammenhang mit der elektrochemischen Performance der Elektroden dargestellt werden. Maßgebliche mikrostrukturelle Veränderungen ergeben sich bei Verdichtungsgraden < 25 % Porosität, verbunden mit einem signifikanten Performancerückgang bei Stromraten ≥ 2C. Dem gegenüber bieten Kompaktierungen der NCM-Kathoden von 20 – 22 % Porosität die höchsten Energiedichten bei moderaten Belastungen, sprich Stromraten ≤ 1C.

Translation: E. Engert

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Received: 2018-03-15
Accepted: 2018-05-09
Published Online: 2018-10-30
Published in Print: 2018-11-15

© 2018, Carl Hanser Verlag, München

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