Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter April 6, 2013

In situ Studies and Simulations of Mould Filling with a Model System for PIM

  • H. Persson , M. Jenni , L. Nyborg and M. Rigdahl


The processing conditions and the mould design are important parts of the powder injection moulding (PIM) process. In the present work, the mould filling phase of the process has been studied in situ with a special mould equipped with a sight glass using a high speed camera. Effects of features such as the mould temperature, the melt temperature, the surface roughness of the mould cavity, the gate dimensions, the mould design and the flow rate on the filling behaviour were demonstrated. In particular it was noted that a rougher mould surface to some extent facilitated the filling of the mould. The mould temperature, the nominal melt temperature and the flow rate affected the position of weld lines via the cooling of the feedstock and the corresponding change of the melt viscosity. The experimentally determined weld-line positions were compared with predictions from numerical simulations performed with the commercial software Moldex3D. The agreement between the experiment and the prediction was in most cases quite fair or good. The in situ observation of the mould filling also provided the possibility to study how the gate dimensions and the flow rate influenced the jetting behaviour.

Mail address: Henrik Persson, Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden. E-mail:


Bilovol, A. A., et al., “The Effect of Constitutive Description of PIM Feedstock Viscosity in Numerical Analysis of the Powder Injection Moulding Process”, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 178, 194199(2006) DOI: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2006.03.163Search in Google Scholar

Bonaccurso, E., et al., “Surface Roughness and Hydrodynamic Boundary Slip of a Newtonian Fluid in a Completely Wetting System”, Phys. Rev. Lett., 90, 144501(2003) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.144501PMid:12731919Search in Google Scholar

Dvorak, P., et al., “Direct Observation of Mould Cavity Filling in Ceramic Injection Moulding”, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 28, 19231929(2008) DOI: 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2008.02.001Search in Google Scholar

German, R. M.: Powder Injection Molding, Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton N. J.(1990)Search in Google Scholar

Griffiths, C. A., et al., “The Effects of Tool Surface Quality in Micro-injection Moulding”, J. Mater. Process. Technol., 189, 418427(2007) DOI: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2007.02.022Search in Google Scholar

Hinse, C., et al., “Simulation-based Design for Powder Injection Moulding”, Powder Injection Moulding Intern., 1, 5456(2007)Search in Google Scholar

Hwang, C. J., Kwon, T. H., “A Full 3D Finite Element Analysis of the Powder Injection Molding Filling Process Including Slip Phenomena”, Polym. Eng. Sci., 42, 3350(2002) DOI: 10.1002/pen.10926Search in Google Scholar

Persson, H., et al., “Rheological and Thermal Properties of a Model System For PIM”, Int. Polym. Proc., 2, 206212(2009) DOI: 10.3139/217.2243Search in Google Scholar

Piccirillo, N., Lee, D., “Jetting Phenomenon in Powder Injection Molding”, Int. J. Powder Metall., 28, 1320(1992)Search in Google Scholar

Suri, P., et al., “Numerical Analysis of Filling Stage during Powder Injection Moulding: Effects of Feedstock Rheology and Mixing Conditions”, Powder Metall., 47, 137143(2004) DOI: 10.1179/003258904225020710Search in Google Scholar

Zhang, H. L., et al., “Experimental Investigation of Key Parameters on the Effects of Cavity Surface Roughness in Microinjection Moulding”, Polym. Eng. Sci., 48, 490495(2008) DOI: 10.1002/pen.20981Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2009-03-04
Accepted: 2009-08-24
Published Online: 2013-04-06
Published in Print: 2009-11-01

© 2009, Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich

Downloaded on 22.2.2024 from
Scroll to top button