Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter April 6, 2013

Modeling of Agglomerate Dispersion in Single Screw Extruders

N. Domingues, M. Camesasca, M. Kaufman, I. Manas-Zloczower, A. Gaspar-Cunha and J. A. Covas


A model for solid agglomerate dispersion in single screw extruders is proposed. The model combines numerical simulations of flow patterns in the metering section of a single screw extruder with a Monte Carlo method of clusters rupture and erosion mediated by a local fragmentation number. Particle size distributions and Shannon entropy are used for mixing characterization. The model is quite general and can be adapted for different polymer-additive systems as well as for different processing equipment.

Mail address: António Gaspar-Cunha, IPC–Institute for Polymer and Composites, Department of Polymer Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal. E-mail:


Alemaskin, K., et al., “Index for Simultaneous Dispersive and Distributive Mixing Characterization in Processing Equipment”, Int. Polym. Proc., 19, 327334(2004) Search in Google Scholar

Bolen, W. R., Colwell, R. E., Intensive Mixing”, Soc. Plast. Eng. J., 8, 2428(1958) Search in Google Scholar

Camesasca, M., et al., “Entropic Characterization of Mixing in Microchannels”, J. Micromech. Microeng., 15, 20382044(2005), DOI: 10.1088/0960-1317/15/11/007 Search in Google Scholar

Camesasca, M., et al., “Quantifying Fluid Mixing with Shannon Entropy”, Macromol. Theory Simul., 15, 595607(2006), DOI: 10.1002/mats.200600037 Search in Google Scholar

Dizon, E. S., “Processing in an Internal Mixer as Affected by Carbon Black Properties”, Rubber Chem. Technol., 49, 1227(1976)10.5254/1.3534941 Search in Google Scholar

Elemans, P. H. M., van Wunnik, J. M., “The Effect of Feeding Mode on Dispersive Mixing Efficiency in Single-Screw Extrusion”, Polym. Eng. Sci., 41, 10991106(2001), DOI: 10.1002/pen.10810 Search in Google Scholar

Gale, M.: Mixing in Single Screw Extruders, iSmithers, Shawbury(2009) Search in Google Scholar

Janes, R. I., Winch, P. J., “Mixing and Shear Predictions for a Single-screw Extruder, Using Computational Simulation”, IMA Journal of Management Mathematics, 5, 399415(1993), DOI: 10.1093/imaman/5.1.399 Search in Google Scholar

Kim, S. J., Kwon, T. H., “Measures of Mixing for Extrusion by Averaging Concepts”, Polym. Eng. Sci., 36, 14661476(1996), DOI: 10.1002/pen.10541 Search in Google Scholar

Manas-Zloczower, I., et al., “Dispersive Mixing in Internal Mixers – A Theoretical-Model Based on Agglomerate Rupture”, Rubber Chem. Technol., 55, 12501285(1982)10.5254/1.3535929 Search in Google Scholar

Manas-Zloczower, I. (Ed.): Mixing and Compounding of Polymers, Hanser, Munich(2009)10.3139/9783446433717 Search in Google Scholar

Manas-Zloczower, I., Feke, D. L., “Dispersive Mixing of Solids Additives”, in Mixing and Compounding of Polymers: Theory and Practice, Manas-Zloczower, I. (Ed.), Hanser, Munich(2009)10.3139/9783446433717 Search in Google Scholar

McKelvey, J. M.: Polymer Processing, Wiley-Interscience, New York(1962) Search in Google Scholar

Meijer, H. E. H., Janssen, J. M. H., “Mixing of Immiscible Liquids, in Mixing and Compounding of Polymers”, in Mixing and Compounding of Polymers: Theory and Practice, Manas-Zloczower, I., Tadmor, Z. (Eds.), Hanser, Munich(1994) Search in Google Scholar

Ottino, J. M.: The Kinematics of Mixing: Stretching, Chaos and Transport, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge(1989) Search in Google Scholar

Rauwendaal, C.: Mixing in Polymer Processing, Marcel Dekker, New York(1991) Search in Google Scholar

Rwei, S. P., et al., “Observation of Carbon Black Agglomerate Dispersion in Simple Shear Flows”, Polym. Eng. Sci., 30, 701706(1990), DOI: 10.1002/pen.760301202 Search in Google Scholar

Scurati, A., et al., “Analysis of the Kinetics of Agglomerate Erosion in Simples Shear Flows”, Chem. Eng. Sci., 60, 65646573(2005), DOI: 10.1016/j.ces.2005.05.059 Search in Google Scholar

Seyvet, O., Navard, P., “In situ Study of the Dynamics of Erosion of Carbon Black Agglomerates”, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 80, 16271629(2001), DOI: 10.1002/app.1256 Search in Google Scholar

Shiga, S., Furuta, M., “Processability of Electron-Paramagnetic-Res in an Internal Mixer .2. Morphological-Changes of Carbon-Black Agglomerates During Mixing”, Rubber Chem. Technol., 58, 122(1985) Search in Google Scholar

Tadmor, Z., Klein, I.: Engineering Principles of Plasticating Extrusion, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York(1970) Search in Google Scholar

Tadmor, Z, “Forces in Dispersive Mixing”, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., 15, 346348(1976), DOI: 10.1021/i160060a022 Search in Google Scholar

Tyagi, S., Ghosh, A. K., “Morphology Development during Blending of Immiscible Polymers in Screw Extruders”, Polym. Eng. Sci, 42, 13091321(2002), DOI: 10.1002/pen.11033 Search in Google Scholar

Utracki, L. A.: Polymer Blends Handbook, Kluwer Academic, Amsterdam(2002) Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2010-02-24
Accepted: 2010-04-29
Published Online: 2013-04-06
Published in Print: 2010-07-01

© 2010, Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich