Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter June 30, 2014

A Study of Non-Isothermal Kinetic Reaction for Vulcanization of Chloride Butyl Rubber via Phenol Formaldehyde Resin

  • X. R. He , H. Yu , Y. Q. Rong , R. Zhang and G. S. Huang


Brominated tert octyl phenol formaldehyde resin (PR) is an important cross linker for chlorinated butyl rubber (CIIR). There are two competitive reactions in the vulcanization process of CIIR, the cross-linking reaction and the self-poly-condensation reaction of PR. The cross-linking density was measured by the equilibrium swelling method. The results showed: with the increasing of PR content, the cross-linking density increased when it was less than 10 phr, and decreased when the PR content exceeded 10 phr. The kinetics equation of cross-linking reaction and the self-poly-condensation reaction was obtained by non-isothermal DSC method. The results showed that the concentration index n2 of PR in the cross-linking reaction was far less than the concentration index n3 of PR in the self-poly-condensation reaction. The self-poly-condensation reaction was more sensitive to the concentration of PR. This explained that the cross-linking density was out of proportion with the cross linker PR content. The mechanical properties and the dynamic mechanical properties were investigated by the universal testing machine and the dynamic mechanical performance analysis (DMA), respectively. The results showed that the cross-linking density had a great impact on the mechanical properties and the dynamic mechanical properties, and the variation trend of the cross-linking density was further confirmed by the corresponding variation of the properties. When the PR content was 5 phr, the CIIR vulcanizates had better mechanical properties.

* Mail address: Xianru He, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, PRC, E-mail:


Bower, D. I.: An Introduction to Polymer Physics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK (2002) 10.1017/CBO9780511801280Search in Google Scholar

Chen, S., Chen, G., “Research and Development of Domestic Chlorinated Butyl Rubber”, Tire Industry, Beijing, 26, 763765 (2006)Search in Google Scholar

Claybourn, M., “Prediction of the Mechanical Properties of a Cross-Linking Polymer from a Combination of the Measured Kinetics and a Model for Network Growth”, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 44, 565575 (1992) 10.1002/app.1992.070440401Search in Google Scholar

Crane, L. W., Dynes, P. J. and Kaelble, D. H., “Analysis of Curing Kinetics in Polymer Composites”, J. Polym. Sci, Part C: Polym. Lett., 11, 533540 (1973) 10.1002/pol.1973.130110808Search in Google Scholar

Ding, G., Wang, J., Zhao, X. and Luo, X., “The Effect of the Resin Curing Agent on the Damping Properties of IIR Vulcanizates”, Rubber Industry, 52, 2729 (2005)Search in Google Scholar

He, P., Yang, H., Zhu, P. and Zhai, B.: Experiment of Polymer Physics, China University of Science and Technology Press, Beijing, p. 90 (2002)Search in Google Scholar

He, X., Wang, X. and Huang, G., “The Preparation and Characterization of Chlorinated Butyl Rubber Compound Damping Materials”, Journal of Southwest Petroleum University, 29, 134137 (2007)Search in Google Scholar

He, X., Yu, H., Wang, X., Huang, G. and Zhang, R., “The Influence of Vulcanization Agents on Vulcanization Kinetics of Chloride Butyl Rubber”, Int. Polym. Proc., 28, 398414 (2013) 10.3139/217.2770Search in Google Scholar

Kim, H. S., Rhee, S. Y. and Cho, M., “Simple and Efficient Interlaminar Stress Analysis of Composite Laminates with Internal Ply-Drop”, Compos. Struct., 84, 7386 (2008) 10.1016/j.compstruct.2007.06.004Search in Google Scholar

Kissinger, H. E., “Reaction Kinetics in Differential Thermal Analysis”, Anal. Chem., 29, 17021706 (1975) 10.1021/ac60131a045Search in Google Scholar

Ozawa, T.: A New Method of Analyzing Thermograwimetric Data, Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan11, p.1881 (1965) 10.1246/bcsj.38.1881Search in Google Scholar

PanJ., “The Dynamic Mechanical Analysis on the Blend System of Butyl Rubber and Phenolic Resin”, Aerospace Materials and Technology, Beijing, 3, 5358 (1989)Search in Google Scholar

Qu, L., Huang, G., “Damping Mechanism of Chlorobutyl Rubber and Phenolic Resin”, J. Mater. Sci., 42, 72567262 (2007) 10.1007/s10853-006-1466-9Search in Google Scholar

Wang, Z., “Halogenated Butyl Rubber Vulcanization System”, World Rubber Industry, 26, 5062 (1999)Search in Google Scholar

Yang, H., Zhu, P. and He, P.: Experiment of Polymer Physics, China University of Science and Technology Press, Beijing (2008)Search in Google Scholar

Zhang, J., “Properties and Development of Butyl Rubber and Halogenated Butyl Rubber”, Petrochemical Technology, Beijing, 16, 6467 (2009)Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2012-10-20
Accepted: 2014-02-25
Published Online: 2014-06-30
Published in Print: 2014-07-30

© 2014, Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich

Downloaded on 5.10.2023 from
Scroll to top button