Accessible Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter July 21, 2016

Processing of Metallic Pigments in a Co-Rotating Twin-Screw Extruder Studied by Means of Dielectric Analysis and Terahertz Spectroscopy

A. Lepschi, S. Katletz, M. Pfleger, H. Pühringer and J. Miethlinger

Abstract

When working with polymeric compounds containing metallic particles, it is essential to know the influence of the shear rate of different screw elements in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder (TSE) on particle size distribution and particle shape. Particle size and form are significant for various processing conditions. A large variety of TSE screw and mixing elements and a wide range of complex mixing geometries are available for processing polymeric compounds with metallic pigments. In this case study, we investigated the feasibility of extruding powder coatings containing metallic pigments as a replacement for the conventional bonding process. Further, we examined the influence of different screw elements on particle size by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dielectric analysis and terahertz spectroscopy.


*Correspondence address, Mail address: Alexander Lepschi, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenbergerstraße 69, 4040 Linz, Austria. E-Mail:

References

Abina, A., Puc, U., Jeglic, A. and Zidansek, A., “Structural Analysis of Insulating Polymer Foams with Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging”, Polym. Test., 32, 739747 (2013)Search in Google Scholar

Abina, A., Puc, U., Jeglic, A., Prah, J., Venckevicius, R., Kasalynas, I., Valusis, G. and Zidansek, A., “Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Calcium-Based Microfillers Using Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging”, Talanta, 143, 169177 (2015) 10.1016/j.talanta.2015.05.027Search in Google Scholar

Alig, I., Lellinger, D. and Hochrein, T., “Chapter 12 Dielektrische Spektroskopie und Leitfähigkeitsmessung”, in Prozessmesstechnik in der Kunststoffaufbereitung, Vogel Business Media, Würzburg, p. 339357 (2011)Search in Google Scholar

Cheng, J. J., Manas-ZloczowerI., “Flow Field Characterization in a Banbury Mixer”, Int. Polym. Proc., 5, 178183 (1990) 10.3139/217.900178Search in Google Scholar

Deninger, A. J., Roggenbuck, A., Schindler, S. and Preu, S., “THz Tuning with a Triple-DFB Laser System at 1550 Nm and InGaAs Photomixers”, J. Infrared Millimeter Terahertz Waves, 36, 269277 (2015) 10.1007/s10762-014-0125-5Search in Google Scholar

Hardis, R., Jessop, J. L. P., Peters, F. E. and Kessler, M. R., “Cure Kinetics Characterization and Monitoring of an Epoxy Resin Using DSC, Raman Spectroscopy, and DEA”, Composites Part A, 49, 100108 (2013)Search in Google Scholar

He, Y., “DSC and DEA Studies of Underfill Curing Kinetics”, Thermochim. Acta, 367–368, 101106 (2001)Search in Google Scholar

Hochrein, T., “Chapter 13 Terahertz-Spektroskopie”, in Prozessmesstechnik in der Kunststoffaufbereitung, Vogel Business Media, Würzburg, p. 359382 (2011)Search in Google Scholar

Krumbholz, N., Hochrein, T., Vieweg, N., Hasek, T., Kretschmer, K., Bastian, M., Mikulics, M. and Koch, M., “Monitoring Polymeric Compounding Process inline with THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy”, Polym. Test., 28, 3035 (2009) 10.1016/j.polymertesting.2008.09.009Search in Google Scholar

Lockhart, P., Ramotowski, T. and Rice, M., “Terahertz Frequency Optical Properties of Acoustic Materials”, Polym. Test., 34, 140145 (2014) 10.1016/j.polymertesting.2014.01.008Search in Google Scholar

Nunez-Regueira, L., Gracia-Fernandez, C. A. and Gomez-Barreiro, S., “Use of Rheology, Dielectric Analysis and Differential Scanning Calorimetry for Gel Time Determination of a Thermoset”, Polymer, 46, 59795985 (2005) 10.1016/j.polymer.2005.05.060Search in Google Scholar

Pietschmann, J., “Chapter 1 Pulverlacke”, in Industrielle Pulverlackverarbeitung, GWV Fachverlage, Wiesbaden, p. 542 (2010) 10.1007/978-3-8348-9371-0Search in Google Scholar

Pfleger, M., Roitner, H. and Pühringer, H., “Advanced Birefringence Measurements in Standard Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy”, Appl. Opt., 53, 31833190 (2014) 10.1364/AO.53.003183Search in Google Scholar

Ramis, X., Calventus, Y., Cadenato, A., Roman, F., Morancho, J. M., Colomer, P., Salla, J. M. and Montserrat, S., “Mechanical, Dielectric and Enthalpic Relaxation of a Thermosetting Powder Coating Based on Carboxyl-Terminated Polyester and Triglycidylisocyanurate”, Prog. Org. Coat., 51, 139144 (2004) 10.1016/j.porgcoat.2004.03.011Search in Google Scholar

Roggenbuck, A., Schmitz, H., Deninger, A., Mayorga, I. C., Hemberger, J., Güsten, R. and Grüninger, M., “Coherent Broadband Continuous-Wave Terahertz Spectroscopy on Solid-State Sample”, New J. Phys., 12, 113 (2010) 10.1088/1367-2630/12/4/043017Search in Google Scholar

Rutz, F., Koch, M., Khare, S., Moneke, M., Richter, H. and Ewert, U., “Terahertz Quality Control of Polymeric Products”, Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves, 27, 547556 (2006) 10.1007/s10762-006-9106-7Search in Google Scholar

Schwerdtfeger, M., Lippert, S., Koch, M., Berg, A., Katletz, S. and Wiesauer, K., “Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy for Monitoring the Curing of Dental Composites”, Biomed. Opt. Express, 3, 28422850 (2012) 10.1364/BOE.3.002842Search in Google Scholar

Stark, W., “Investigation of Curing Behaviour of Melamine/Phenolic (MP) Thermosets”, Polym. Test., 29, 723728 (2010) 10.1016/j.polymertesting.2010.05.008Search in Google Scholar

Wietzke, S., Jansen, C., Rutz, F., Mittleman, D. and Koch, M., “Determination of Additive Content in Polymeric Compounds with Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy”, Polym. Test., 26, 614618 (2007) 10.1016/j.polymertesting.2007.03.002Search in Google Scholar

Wietzke, S., Jansen, C., Reuter, M., Jung, T., Kraft, D., Chatterjee, S., Fischer, B. M. and Koch, M., “Terahertz Spectroscopy on Polymers: A Review of Morphological Studies”, J. Mol. Struct., 1006, 4151 (2011) 10.1016/j.molstruc.2011.07.036Search in Google Scholar

Wu, G., Kong, Z., Chen, C., Chen, J., Huo, S. and Jiang, J., “Evaluation of the Crosslinking Reaction Kinetics of Cationic Polyol Dispersions with Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Dielectric Analysis”, Thermochim. Acta, 551, 118123 (2013) 10.1016/j.tca.2012.10.014Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2016-04-26
Accepted: 2016-05-19
Published Online: 2016-07-21
Published in Print: 2016-08-12

© 2016, Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich