Skip to content
Licensed Unlicensed Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter July 31, 2017

Influence of Melt Compounding on Blast Furnace Slag Filled PP Compounds: A Comparative Study

  • A. Mostafa , G. Pacher , T. Lucyshyn , C. Holzer , E. Krischey , H. Flachberger , B. Fritz and S. Laske


In the current study, an assessment of the melt-compounding approach upon the behavior of blast furnace slag (BFS) filled polypropylene (PP) is reported. Two melt-compounding technologies are compared in terms of thermodynamic considerations as well as final behavior of the produced compounds. For this comparison, three PP-BFS formulations are introduced, where non-treated BFS is melt-mixed with PP via (1) internal lab mixer (IM) and (2) co-rotating twin-screw compounder (TSC). PP-BFS compounds from both processes are formed into plates via compression molding, characterized and tested for rheological, thermal and mechanical behavior. Processing parameters were evaluated for both processes such as specific shear work, residence time and shear rates. In addition, the rheological, thermal and mechanical behavior of comparable compounds are evaluated. The calculated specific shear work values for IM and TSC are 0.15 and 0.1 kW · h · kg−1. Calculated residence time for TSC is 55 s. Regarding the rheological behavior, it was found that melt mixing via both technologies did not show major differences in complex viscosity or storage- and loss moduli values. DSC findings show that crystallization and melting temperatures of IM- and TSC formulations are comparable. Decreased strain values are noticed for TSC compounds, while tensile modulus is found to be independent of process variation.

*Correspondence address, Mail address: Gernot Pacher, Polymer Competence Center Leoben GmbH (PCCL), Roseggerstraße 12, A-8700 Leoben, Austria, E-mail:


Asmatulaev, B. A., Asmatulaev, R. B., Abdrasulova, A. S., Levintov, B. L., Vitushchenko, M. F. and Stolyarskiiv, O. A., “Using Blast-Furnace Slag in Road Construction”, Steel Transl., 37, 722–725 (2007) 10.3103/S0967091207080189Search in Google Scholar

Baniasadi, H., RamazaniS. A. and Javan Nikkhah, S.Investigation of in situ Prepared Polypropylene/Clay Nanocomposites Properties and Comparing to Melt Blending Method”, Mater. Des., 31, 76–84 (2010) 10.1016/j.matdes.2009.07.014Search in Google Scholar

Bledzki, A. K., Letman, M., Viksne, A. and Rence, L., “A Comparison of Compounding Processes and Wood Type for Wood Fibre–PP Composites”, Composites Part A, 36, 789–797 (2005) 10.1016/j.compositesa.2004.10.029Search in Google Scholar

Fu, S.-Y., Feng, X.-Q., Lauke, B. and Mai, Y.-W., “Effects of Particle Size, Particle/Matrix Interface Adhesion and Particle Loading on Mechanical Properties of Particulate–Polymer Composites”, Composites Part B, 39, 933–96 (2008) 10.1016/j.compositesb.2008.01.002Search in Google Scholar

Giles, H. F., Wagner, J. R. and Mount, E. M.: Extrusion: The Definitive Processing Guide and Handbook, William Andrew, New York (2005)Search in Google Scholar

Joseph, P., “Effect of Processing Variables on the Mechanical Properties of Sisal-Fiber-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites”, Compos. Sci. Technol., 59, 1625–1640 (1999) 10.1016/S0266-3538(99)00024-XSearch in Google Scholar

Kohlgrüber, K., Bierdel, M.: Co-Rotating Twin-Screw Extruders: Fundamentals, Technology, and Applications, Hanser Publishers, Munich (2008)10.3139/9783446433410.fmSearch in Google Scholar

Lozano, T., Lafleur, P. G., Grmela, M. and Thibodeau, C., “Effect of Filler Dispersion on Polypropylene Morphology”, Polym. Eng. Sci., 44, 880–890 (2004) 10.1002/pen.20079Search in Google Scholar

Marinelli, A. L., Bretas, R. E. S. J., “Blends of Polypropylene Resins with a Liquid Crystalline Polymer. I. Isothermal Crystallization”, Appl. Polym. Sci., 87, 916–930 (2003) 10.1002/app.11386Search in Google Scholar

Mattausch, H., Laske, S., Duretek, I., Kreith, J., Maier, G. and Holzer, C., “Investigation of the Influence of Processing Conditions on the Thermal, Rheological and Mechanical Behavior of Polypropylene Nanocomposites”, Polym. Eng. Sci., 53, 1001–1010 (2013) 10.1002/pen.23350Search in Google Scholar

Mihok, L., Demeter, P., Baricova, K. and Seilerova, K., “Utilization of Ironmaking and Steelmaking Slags”, Metallurgija, 45, 163–168 (2006)Search in Google Scholar

Mostafa, A., Laske, S., Pacher, G., Holzer, C., Flachberger, H., Krischey, E. and Fritz, B., “Blast Furnace Slags as Functional Fillers on Rheological, Thermal, and Mechanical Behavior of Thermoplastics”, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 133, 1–9 (2016) 10.1002/app.43021Search in Google Scholar

National Slag Association, “Blast Furnace Slag”, (2015)Search in Google Scholar

Ning, N.-Y., Yin, Q.-J., Luo, F., Zhang, Q., Du, R. and Fu, Q., “Crystallization Behavior and Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene/Halloysite Composites”, Polymer, 48, 7374–7384 (2007) 10.1016/j.polymer.2007.10.005Search in Google Scholar

Park, B.-D., Balatinecz, J. J., “A Comparison of Compounding Processes for Wood-Fiber/Thermoplastic Composites”, Polym. Compos., 18, 425–431 (1997) 10.1002/pc.10294Search in Google Scholar

Repka, M. A., Langley, N. and Dinunzio, J.: Melt Extrusion: Materials, Technology and Drug Product Design, Springer, New York (2013)10.1007/978-1-4614-8432-5Search in Google Scholar

Selvin, T. P., Kuruvilla, J. and Sabu, T., “Mechanical Properties of Titanium Dioxide-Filled Polystyrene Microcomposites”, Mater. Lett., 58, 281–289 (2004) 10.1016/S0167-577X(03)00470-1Search in Google Scholar

The European Association Representing Metallurgical Producers and Processors (Euroslag), in Google Scholar

Velasco, J. I., De Saja, J. A. and Martinez, A. B., “Crystallization Behavior of Polypropylene Filled with Surface-Modified Talc”, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 61, 125–132 (1996) 10.1002/(SICI)1097-4628(19960705)61:1<125::AID-APP14>3.0.CO;2-6Search in Google Scholar

Weninger, J., “Orientierende aufbereitungstechnische Untersuchungen an Hochofenschlacken”, Bachelor of Science Thesis II, Rohstoffingenieurwesen, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Leoben, Austria (2014)Search in Google Scholar

Witschnigg, A., Laske, S., Kracalik, M. and Holzer, C., “Influence of Induced Shear Work on the Properties of Polyolefin Nanocomposite Pipes”, Polym. Eng. Sci., 52, 1155–1160 (2012) 10.1002/pen.22146Search in Google Scholar

Yoon, P. J., Hunter, D. L. and Paul, D. R., “Polycarbonate Nanocomposites. Part 1. Effect of Organoclay Structure on Morphology and Properties”, Polymer, 44, 5341–5354 (2003) 10.1016/S0032-3861(03)00523-8Search in Google Scholar

Zuiderduin, W. C. J., Westzaan, C., Huétink, J. and Gaymans, J. R., “Toughening of Polypropylene with Calcium Carbonate Particles”, Polymer, 44, 261–275 (2003) 10.1016/S0032-3861(02)00769-3Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2016-09-21
Accepted: 2017-02-06
Published Online: 2017-07-31
Published in Print: 2017-08-11

© 2017, Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich

Downloaded on 5.12.2023 from
Scroll to top button