Skip to content
BY 4.0 license Open Access Published by De Gruyter July 27, 2018

Numerical Investigations of Fiber Orientation Models for Injection Molded Long Fiber Composites

H.-C. Tseng, R.-Y. Chang and C.-H. Hsu

Abstract

Understanding the effect of fiber orientation on mechanical properties is a primary consideration for long fiber-reinforced thermoplastics in automotive applications. In injection-molded parts, the classical Folgar-Tucker model has been used to predict the shell-core structure of short fiber orientation patterns. However, this model results in a thinner core region for long fiber composites. Recently, the RSC (Reduced Strain Closure), ARD (Anisotropic Rotary Diffusion), and iARD-RPR (improved ARD and Retarding Principal Rate) models are potential models developed in relation to suspension rheology. In addition to improving the inaccurate predictions, a so-called inlet condition of fiber orientation set at the gate is examined in the RSC. In this approach, a significant requirement is to numerically investigate the nature of the shell-core structure, while validating a predictive difference between the orientation models via related experimental data. Dramatic changes in the orientation distribution at various filling times and mold temperatures are discussed herein.


*Correspondence address, Mail address: Huan-Chang Tseng, CoreTech System (Moldex3D) Co., Ltd., Tai Yuen Hi-Tech Industrial Park, 8F-2, No. 32, Taiyuan St., ChuPei City, Hsinchu County 30265, ROC, E-mail:

References

Advani, S. G., Tucker, C. L., “The Use of Tensors to Describe and Predict Fiber Orientation in Short Fiber Composites”, J. Rheol., 31, 751784 (1987) 10.1122/1.549945Search in Google Scholar

Akay, M., Barkley, D., “Fibre Orientation and Mechanical Behaviour in Reinforced Thermoplastic Injection Mouldings”, J. Mater. Sci., 26, 27312742 (1991) 10.1007/BF02387744Search in Google Scholar

Chung, D. H., Kwon, T. H., “Invariant-Based Optimal Fitting Closure Approximation for the Numerical Prediction of Flow-Induced Fiber Orientation”, J. Rheol., 46, 169194 (2002) 10.1122/1.1423312Search in Google Scholar

Doi, M., Edwards, S. F. M.: The Theory of Polymer Dynamics, Clarendon, Oxford (1986)Search in Google Scholar

Folgar, F., Tucker, C. L., “Orientation Behavior of Fibers in Concentrated Suspensions”, J. Reinf. Plast. Compos., 3, 98119 (1984) 10.1177/073168448400300201Search in Google Scholar

Foss, P. H., Tseng, H.-C., Snawerdt, J., Chang, Y.-J-., Yang, W.-H. and Hsu, C. H., “Prediction of Fiber Orientation Distribution in Injection Molded Parts Using Moldex3d Simulation”, Polym. Compos., 35, 671680 (2014) 10.1002/pc.22710Search in Google Scholar

Hand, G. L., “A Theory of Anisotropic Fluids”, J. Fluid Mech., 13, 3346 (1962) 10.1017/S0022112062000476Search in Google Scholar

Kleindel, S., Salaberger, D., Eder, R., Schretter, H. and Hochenauer, C., “Prediction and Validation of Short Fiber Orientation in a Complex Injection Molded Part with Chunky Geometry”, Int. Polym. Proc., 30, 366380 (2015) 10.3139/217.3047Search in Google Scholar

Kunc, V., Warren, C. D., Yocum, A., Schutte, C. and Owens, E., “Predictive Engineering Tools for Injection-Molded Long-Carbon-Fiber Thermoplastic Composites”, FY 2014 Annual Progress Report-Lightweight Materials, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), The US Department of Energy, Washington, p. 206215 (2014)Search in Google Scholar

Morrison, F. A.: Understanding Rheology. Oxford University, Oxford (2001)10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.23355Search in Google Scholar

Nguyen, B. N., Fifield, L. S., Kijewski, S. A., Sangid, M. D., Wang, J., Jin, X., Costa, F., Tucker, C. L., Gandhi, U. N. and Mori, S., “Predictive Engineering Tools for Injection-Molded Long-Carbon-Fiber Thermoplastic Composites”, FY 2015 First Quarterly Report, The US Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PNNL Report under Contract DE-AC05–76RL01830 PNNL-24031 (2015a)10.2172/1177306Search in Google Scholar

Nguyen, B. N., Fifield, L. S., Kijewski, S. A., Sangid, M. D., Wang, J., Costa, F., Tucker, C. L., Mathur, R. N.Gandhi, U. N. and Mori, S.. “Predictive Engineering Tools for Injection-Molded Long-Carbon-Fiber Thermoplastic Composites”, FY 2015 Second Quarterly Report, The US Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PNNL-24259 (PNNL Report under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830) (2015b)10.2172/1183627Search in Google Scholar

Nguyen, B. N., Fifield, L. S., Mathur, R. N., Kijewski, S. A., Sangid, M. D., Wang, J., Jin, X., Costa, F., Gandhi, U. N., Mori, S. and Tucker, C. L., “Predictive Engineering Tools for Injection-Molded Long-Carbon-Fiber Thermoplastic Composites”, FY 2014 Fourth Quarterly Report, The US Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PNNL Report under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 PNNL-23842 (2014)10.2172/1252855Search in Google Scholar

Papathanasiou, T. D., Guell, D. C.: Flow-Induced Alignment in Composite Materials, Cambridge, Woodhead, p. 127137 (1997)10.1201/9781439822739Search in Google Scholar

Phan-Thien, N., Fan, X. J., Tanner, R. I. and Zheng, R., “Folgar–Tucker Constant for a Fibre Suspension in a Newtonian Fluid”, J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech., 103, 251260 (2002) 10.1016/S0377-0257(02)00006-XSearch in Google Scholar

Phelps, J. H., Tucker, C. L., “An Anisotropic Rotary Diffusion Model for Fiber Orientation in Short- and Long-Fiber Thermoplastics”, J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech., 156, 165176 (2009) 10.1016/j.jnnfm.2008.08.002Search in Google Scholar

Press, W. H., Teukolsky, S. A., Vetterling, W. T. and Flannery, B. P.: Numerical Recipes in C, Cambridge University Press, New York (2007)Search in Google Scholar

Svendsen, B., Bertram, A., “On Frame-Indifference and Form-Invariance in Constitutive Theory”, Acta Mechanica, 132, 195207 (1999) 10.1007/BF01186967Search in Google Scholar

Tseng, H.-C., Chang, R.-Y. and Hsu, C.-H., “Phenomenological Improvements to Predictive Models of Fiber Orientation in Concentrated Suspensions”, J. Rheol., 57, 15971631 (2013) 10.1122/1.4821038Search in Google Scholar

Tseng, H.-C., Chang, R.-Y. and Hsu, C.-H., “An Objective Tensor to Predict Anisotropic Fiber Orientation in Concentrated Suspensions”, J. Rheol., 60, 215224 (2016) 10.1122/1.4939098Search in Google Scholar

Tseng, H.-C., Chang, R.-Y. and Hsu, C.-H., “Improved Fiber Orientation Predictions for Injection Molded Fiber Composites”, Composites Part A, 99, 6575 (2017a) 10.1016/j.compositesa.2017.04.004Search in Google Scholar

Tseng, H.-C., Chang, R.-Y. and Hsu, C.-H., “Numerical Prediction of Fiber Orientation and Mechanical Performance for Short/Long Glass and Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Composites”, Compos. Sci. Technol.144, 5156 (2017b) 10.1016/j.compscitech.2017.02.020Search in Google Scholar

Tseng, H.-C., Chang, R.-Y. and Hsu, C.-H., “Accurate Predictions of Fiber Orientation and Tensile Modulus in Short-Fiber-Reinforced Composite with Experimental Validation”, Polym. Compos., online (2017)10.1002/pc.24277Search in Google Scholar

Tucker, C. L., Huynh, H. M., “Fiber Orientation in Short Flow Length Parts: Limitations of Current Predictions”, 17th Annual Meeting of the Polymer Processing Society, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (2001)Search in Google Scholar

van Haag, J., Bontenackels, C. and Hopmann, C., “Fiber Orientation Prediction of Long Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastics: Optimization of Model Parameters”, SPE ANTEC Tech. Papers (2015) 26619640Search in Google Scholar

VerWeyst, B. E., “Numerical Predictions of Flow-Induced Fiber Orientation in Three-Dimensional Geometries”, PhD Thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois, USA (1998)Search in Google Scholar

Wang, J., O'Gara, J. F. and Tucker, C. L., “An Objective Model for Slow Orientation Kinetics in Concentrated Fiber Suspensions: Theory and Rheological Evidence”, J. Rheol., 52, 11791200 (2008) 18755969 10.1122/1.2946437Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2017-07-21
Accepted: 2017-08-12
Published Online: 2018-07-27
Published in Print: 2018-08-10

© 2018, Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Scroll Up Arrow