Accessible Requires Authentication Published by De Gruyter April 9, 2020

Mechanical and Vibrational Behavior of Twill Woven Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites

K. M. John, S. Thirumalai Kumaran, K. Senthil Kumar, S. Suresh Kumar, M. Aslan and Ü. Alver

Abstract

Enhancing mechanical properties and suppressing vibration are important requisites in developing composite materials for dynamic structural applications such as automotive and aircraft. In this work, mechanical and vibrational properties of twill woven CFRP composites fabricated by compression molding, are studied by varying tow sizes (3k and 6k). Density, void, tensile, bending, impact strength, hardness, and free vibration tests were conducted as per ASTM standards to study their properties and investigate the impact of tow sizes on composites. In experimental modal analysis, Frequency Response Function (FRF) plots were also recorded. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to analyse the fracture behavior of the composites. A comparison between the observed results of 3k and 6k twills are made and discussed in detail. From the experimental investigation, it is found that higher tow size decreases the tensile, flexural and hardness strength but increases the natural frequency and damping coefficient. Interfacial bonding between fiber and matrix was affected by the presence of voids in the composites as evident from SEM micrographs.


Mail address: S. Thirumalai Kumaran, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Kalasalingam Academy of Research and Education, Krishnankoil -626126, Tamilnadu, India, E-mail:

References

1 Baucom, J. N., Zikry, M. A. and Qiu, Y., “Dynamic and Quasi-Static Failure Evolution of 3D Woven Cellular Composite Systems”, J. Reinf. Plast. Compos., 23, 471481 (2004) 10.1177/0731684404032076 Search in Google Scholar

2 Bennet, C., Rajini, N., Jappes, J. W., Siva, I., Sreenivasan, V. and Amico, S., “Effect of the Stacking Sequence on Vibrational Behavior of Sansevieria Cylindrica/Coconut Sheath Polyester Hybrid Composites”, J. Reinf. Plast. Compos., 34, 293306 (2015) 10.1177/0731684415570683 Search in Google Scholar

3 Bledzki, A., “Composites Reinforced with Cellulose Based Fibres”, Prog. Polym. Sci., 24, 221274 (1999) 10.1016/S0079-6700(98)00018-5 Search in Google Scholar

4 Bulut, M., Alsaadi, M., Erkliğ, A. and Alrawi, H., “The Effects of S-Glass Fiber Hybridization on Vibration-Damping Behavior of Intraply Woven Carbon/Aramid Hybrid Composites for Different Lay-Up Configurations”, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part C J. Mech. Eng. Sci., 233, 32203231 (2019) 10.1177/0954406218813188 Search in Google Scholar

5 Chandradass, J., Kumar, M. R. and Velmurugan, R., “Effect of Nanoclay Addition on Vibration Properties of Glass Fibre Reinforced Vinyl Ester Composites”, Mater. Lett., 61, 43854388 (2007) 10.1016/j.matlet.2007.02.009 Search in Google Scholar

6 Dixit, A., Mali, H. S. and Misra, R. K., “A Micromechanical Unit Cell Model of 2 × 2 Twill Woven Fabric Textile Composite for Multi Scale Analysis”, J. Inst. Eng. Ser. E., 95, 19 (2014) 10.1007/S40034-014-0028-y Search in Google Scholar

7 Erklig, A., Bulut, M. and Yeter, E., “The Effect of Hybridization and Boundary Conditions on Damping and Free Vibration of Composite Plates”, Sci. Eng. Compos. Mater., 22, 565571 (2015) 10.1515/secm-2014-0070 Search in Google Scholar

8 Feraboli, P., Masini, A., “Development of Carbon/Epoxy Structural Components for a High Performance Vehicle”, Composites Part B, 35, 323330 (2004) 10.1016/j.compositesb.2003.11.010 Search in Google Scholar

9 Gallardo-López, A., Poyato, R., Morales-Rodríguez, A., Fernández-Serrano, A., Muñoz, A. and Domínguez-Rodríguez, A., “Hardness and Flexural Strength of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube/Alumina Composites”, J. Mater. Sci., 49, 71167123 (2014) 10.1007/s10853-014-8419-5 Search in Google Scholar

10 Jacob, G. C., Starbuck, J. M., Fellers, J. F. and Simunovic, S., “Effect of Fiber Volume Fraction, Fiber Length and Fiber Tow Size on the Energy Absorption of Chopped Carbon Fiber-Polymer Composites”, Polym. Compos., 26, 293305 (2005) 10.1002/pc.20100 Search in Google Scholar

11 Khan, S. M., Gull, N., Munawar, M. A., Zia, S., Anjum, F., Iqbal, M. S., Shafiq, M., Islam, A., Awais, S. M., Butt, M. A., Butt, M. T. Z. and Jamil, T., “Polyphenylene Sulphide/Carbon Fiber Composites: Study on Their Thermal, Mechanical and Microscopic Properties”, Iran. Polym. J., 25, 475485 (2016) 10.1007/s13726-016-0439-3 Search in Google Scholar

12 Kumar, K. S., Siva, I., Rajini, N., Jeyaraj, P. and Jappes, J. W., “Tensile, Impact, and Vibration Properties of Coconut Sheath/Sisal Hybrid Composites: Effect of Stacking Sequence”, J. Reinf. Plast. Compos., 33, 18021812 (2014) 10.1177/0731684414546782 Search in Google Scholar

13 Lee, S.-K., Byun, J.-H. and Hong, S. H., “Effect of Fiber Geometry on the Elastic Constants of the Plain Woven Fabric Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites”, Mater. Sci. Eng. A., 347, 346358 (2003) 10.1016/S0921–5093(02)00614–7 Search in Google Scholar

14 Lei, X., Rui, W., Liu, Y. and Jin, L., “The Effect of Woven Structures on the Vibration Characteristics of Glass Fabric/Epoxy Composite Plates”, Def. Sci. J., 61, 499504 (2011) 10.14429/dsj.61.296 Search in Google Scholar

15 Lewis, S. J., “The Use of Carbon Fibre Composites on Military Aircraft”, Compos. Manuf., 5, 95103 (1994) 10.1016/0956-7143(94)90060-4 Search in Google Scholar

16 Mehdikhani, M., Gorbatikh, L., Verpoest, I. and Lomov, S. V., “Voids in Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites: A Review on Their Formation, Characteristics, and Effects on Mechanical Performance”, J. Compos. Mater., 53, 15791669 (2019) 10.1177/0021998318772152 Search in Google Scholar

17 Mouritz, A. P., Bannister, M. K., Falzon, P. J. and Leong, K. H., “Review of Applications for Advanced Three-Dimensional Fibre Textile Composites”, Composites Part A, 30, 14451461 (1999) 10.1016/S1359-835X(99)00034-2 Search in Google Scholar

18 Rajesh, M., Pitchaimani, J., “Dynamic Mechanical Analysis and Free Vibration Behavior of Intra-Ply Woven Natural Fiber Hybrid Polymer Composite”, J. Reinf. Plast. Compos., 35, 228242 (2016) 10.1177/0731684415611973 Search in Google Scholar

19 Rajesh, M., Pitchaimani, J. and Rajini, N., “Free Vibration Characteristics of Banana/Sisal Natural Fibers Reinforced Hybrid Polymer Composite Beam”, Procedia Eng., 144, 10551059 (2016) 10.1016/j.proeng.2016.05.056 Search in Google Scholar

20 Rajeshkumar, G., Hariharan, V., “Free Vibration Characteristics of Phoenix Sp Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite Beams”, Procedia Eng., 97, 687693 (2014) 10.1016/j.proeng.2014.12.298 Search in Google Scholar

21 Rajini, N., Jappes, J. W., Rajakarunakaran, S. and Jeyaraj, P., “Dynamic Mechanical Analysis and Free Vibration Behavior in Chemical Modifications of Coconut Sheath/Nano-Clay Reinforced Hybrid Polyester Composite”, J. Compos. Mater., 47, 31053121 (2013) 10.1177/0021998312462618 Search in Google Scholar

22 Rouf, K., Denton, N. L. and French, R. M., “Effect of Fabric Weaves on the Dynamic Response of Two-Dimensional Woven Fabric Composites”, J. Mater. Sci., 52, 1058110591 (2017) 10.1007/s10853-017-1183-6 Search in Google Scholar

23 Sakai, M., Matsuyama, R. and Miyajima, T., “The Pull-Out and Failure of a Fiber Bundle in a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Carbon Matrix Composite”, Carbon, 38, 21232131 (2000) 10.1016/S0008-6223(00)00067-1 Search in Google Scholar

24 Sathishkumar, T., Satheeshkumar, S. and Naveen, J., “Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites – A Review”, J. Reinf. Plast. Compos., 33, 12581275 (2014) 10.1177/0731684414530790 Search in Google Scholar

25 Senthamaraikannan, C., Ramesh, R., “Experimental Investigation on Vibration Characteristics of Woven Carbon Fabric-Reinforced Composite Beams of Various Cross-Sectional Shapes”, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part L J. Mater. Des. Appl., 230, 6474 (2016) 10.1177/1464420714545368 Search in Google Scholar

26 Senthil Kumar, K., Siva, I., Jeyaraj, P., Winowlin Jappes, J. T., Amico, S. C. and Rajini, N., “Synergy of Fiber Length and Content on Free Vibration and Damping Behavior of Natural Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composite Beams”, Mater. Des., 56, 379386 (2014) 10.1016/j.matdes.2013.11.039 Search in Google Scholar

27 Srinivasa, V., Shivakumar, V., Nayaka, V., Jagadeeshaiaih, S., Seethram, M., Shenoy, R. and Nafidi, A., “Fracture Morphology of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic Composite Laminates”, Mater. Res., 13, 417424 (2010) 10.1590/S1516-14392010000300022 Search in Google Scholar

28 Vigneshwaran, S., Uthayakumar, M. and Arumugaprabu, V., “Development and Sustainability of Industrial Waste-Based Red Mud Hybrid Composites”, J. Clean. Prod., 230, 862868 (2019) 10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.05.131 Search in Google Scholar

29 Williams, J. G., “Fracture Mechanics of Composites Failure”, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part C Mech. Eng. Sci., 204, 209218 (1990) 10.1243/PIME_PROC_1990_204_099_02 Search in Google Scholar

Received: 2019-11-29
Accepted: 2020-01-15
Published Online: 2020-04-09
Published in Print: 2020-04-29

© 2020, Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich