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Phase formation and reaction kinetics in M– In systems (M = Pt, Pd, Mn)

  • Thomas Studnitzky and Rainer Schmid-Fetzer EMAIL logo


A systematic search for metal– indium systems which show a potentially high remelting temperature in diffusion-soldered bonds was done by investigation of phase formation and reaction kinetics in M– In systems (M = Pt, Pd, Mn). Phase equilibration experiments M–In (M = Pd, Mn) were done with powder samples prepared from pure elements, heated in evacuated silica capsules between 200 and 700 °C for 15 min to 570 h, and studied by X-ray diffraction analysis. Diffusion couples M/In (M = Pt, Pd, Mn) were prepared from the foils or wires of pure elements and heated in a bonding furnace or in evacuated silica tubes at 250 – 700 °C for 30 min to 96 h. The couples were cross-sectioned and studied by scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The rates of M– In reactions can be semiquantitatively ordered in the sequence Pt > Pd≫Mn ( – In). The activation energy of the well-defined reaction of Mn– In powder samples was calculated to be 56 ± 10 kJ/mol. The activation energies calculated from the layer growth in diffusion couples show a large uncertainty, they are 39 kJ/mol (Pt/In), 23 kJ/mol (Pd/In) and 41 kJ/mol (Mn/In). Pt – In and Pd– In are very promising candidates for diffusion soldering of high-temperature stable bonds.

Prof. Dr. R. Schmid-Fetzer Institute of Metallurgy Robert-Koch-Str. 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany Tel.: +49 5323 722 150 Fax: +49 5323 723 120

  1. This study was supported by the German Research Council (DFG) under Grant No. Schm 588/20.


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Received: 2002-04-08
Published Online: 2022-01-08

© 2002 Carl Hanser Verlag, München

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