A hydroponic culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of copper toxicity on root morphology, ultrastructure, and copper accumulation in Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens). Root ultrastructure of Moso bamboo was studied by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Application of 200 μM Cu resulted in an accumulation of 810 mg kg-1 dry weight and 91 mg kg-1 dry weight Cu in roots and shoots, respectively. The majority of the plants did not survive the application of 400 μM Cu. Biomass production declined consistently with application of each additional increment of Cu. Root growth was more severely inhibited than shoot growth. Cu adversely affected the root morphology of the plants, however, root surface area and number of root tips increased slightly at low levels of Cu. Root cell ultrastructure and organelles changed significantly under Cu stress, in particular, cell walls, mitochondria, and xylem parenchyma were affected.
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