We do not have tests of ad effects here, but the puzzle of Clinton’s loss is more apparent when one considers late deciders. Initial work suggests the balance of these voters broke for Trump. See, for example, “Voters Really Did Switch to Trump at the Last Minute,” http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/voters-really-did-switch-to-trump-at-the-last-minute/ (Accessed 20 Dec. 2016). That these late deciders did so at the same moment Clinton was on the air is worth additional analysis. For example, it is possible that the content of Clinton’s ads were particularly ineffective (if not producing a backlash against her). We discuss the tone and substance of Clinton’s ads below.