W. H. Wellßow, P. Hinkel, M. Zugck, C. Dumas, S. Hilgers, M. Livrozet, A. Mannebach, M. Walter, C. Picken, C. Schneiders, M. Görgen, C. Waniek
August 29, 2020
In Germany, the installed capacity of renewables exceeds the maximum load by far and the transmission task has changed from high-wind locations in the north to the economically strong south. In addition, the system inertia is reduced due to the decommissioning of large power stations. This leads to a higher probability of blackouts and a challenging restoration process. Operation during restoration differs strongly from normal. Besides other effects, the grid frequency is very sensitive to active power imbalances. An accurate power forecast of re-supplied feeders is required to estimate dynamic frequency deviations. Models for cold load pick-up (CLPU) and fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) infeed are presented. For the coordination between Transmission system operators (TSO) and Distribution system operators (DSO) a clear and structured process is proposed to minimize the communication effort. Power system restoration (PSR) simulations are carried out and the results are presented.