Vincenzo Panuccio, Patrizia Pizzini, Giovanna Parlongo, Graziella Caridi, Rocco Tripepi, Angela Mafrica, Sebastiano Cutrupi, Graziella D’Arrigo, Gaetana Porto, Carlo Garofalo, Michele Provenzano, Giovanni Tripepi, Francesca Mallamaci, Mario Plebani, Carmine Zoccali
February 12, 2019
Background Excessive sodium intake is a risk factor for hypertension, cardiovascular disease and the risk for kidney failure in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Methods We tested the diagnostic performance and the feasibility of an inexpensive method based on urine chloride strips for self-monitoring sodium intake in a series of 72 CKD patients. Results Twenty-four hour urinary chloride as measured by the reactive strips and 24 h urinary sodium were interrelated (r=0.59, p<0.001). Forty-nine out of 72 patients (78%) had a 24 h urinary sodium >100 mmol/24 h, i.e. the upper limit recommended by current CKD guidelines. The strip method had 75.5% sensitivity and 82.6% specificity to correctly classify patients with urine sodium >100 mmol/24 h. The positive and the negative predictive values were 90.2% and 61.3%, respectively. The overall accuracy (ROC curve analysis) of urine chloride self-measurement for the >100 mmol/24 h sodium threshold was 87% (95% CI: 77%–97%). The large majority of patients (97%) perceived the test as useful to help compliance with the prescribed dietary sodium and considered the test as simple and of immediate application (58%) or feasible but requiring attention (39%). Conclusions A simple and inexpensive test for urine chloride measurement has a fairly good performance for the diagnosis of excessive sodium intake. The test is feasible and it is perceived by CKD patients as helpful for enhancing compliance to the dietary sodium recommendations. The usefulness of this test for improving hypertension control in CKD patients will be tested in a clinical trial (Clinicaltrials.gov RF-2010-2314890).