Carsten Stengaard, Jacob Thorsted Sørensen, Martin Bøhme Rasmussen, Morten Thingemann Bøtker, Claus Kjær Pedersen, Christian Juhl Terkelsen
November 23, 2016
Primary percutaneous intervention (PPCI) is the preferred treatment in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) if this can be performed in a timely manner. The 2012 ESC Guidelines on management of AMI in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation advice that PPCI should be performed within 120 min of first medical contact. Prehospital diagnosis of patients with STEMI is performed to save time and make PPCI available to the majority of patients. Although diagnosing patients with STEMI is usually easy, there are important pitfalls and patients with STEMI are missed on occasion. In addition, it is well know that patients without ST elevation may also have a high-risk cardiac condition. The 2015 ESC Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation stress the importance of urgent CAG in patients with high-risk non ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Unfortunately, these patients are difficult to diagnose in the acute phase and important time may be spend establishing the correct diagnosis. Prehospital biomarker measurement has emerged as a method to gain important additional information. We review the evidence on prehospital diagnosis of patients with STEMI and, In addition, we present the current knowledge on the new diagnostic methods that could have a future role in prehospital rule-in and rule-out of cardiac disease.