During World War I Nietzsche, on the one hand, was blamed for German militarism in Anglo-American and French writings, and, on the other hand, became celebrated as a spiritual hero of German culture and greatness. This essay delivers a critique of simplistic images of Nietzsche’s philosophy in the context of war by analyzing essentials of his mature work (“will to power” etc.). Additionally, the German intellectual scene is confronted with Nietzsche’s denouncement of nationalism, anti-Semitism, Christianity, socialism in order to deny the existence of a definitive Nietzschean war position. Finally, Nietzsche’s European idea is reflected in light of Max Weber’s comments on World War I and his political theory. The essay concludes that the problem of how to relate philosophical thinking to realities of historical development deserves further inquiry.