In recent years, the theme of neuroenhancement has led to many heated discussions and to a surprising range of academic endeavours dealing with the topic. Most notably, the emerging field of neuroethics has become a prominent, almost monopolistic arena for this debate. In our paper, we provide an overview of issues relevant to the theme of enhancement, starting from a precise conceptualisation of the relevant range of phenomena and practices, including some informed estimates as to the prevalence and efficacy of neuroenhancement. We then sketch an alternative critical perspective that, in our view, is better suited than the narrow perspective of neuroethics to deal with the many relevant societal developments and normative orientations that inform both the alleged enhancement “trend” and the public debates surrounding it. We support our case for what we call a critical philosophy of neuroscience by discussing recent forms of venture science that have emerged in line with the commercialising of academic research and with the commodification of life and health. Furthermore, we point to a trend towards blind acceleration in various spheres of contemporary life, and discuss its ramifications for the theme of enhancement. Countering the perspective of applied ethics, we finally call for a more explicitly political positioning on the part of those that deal with these themes.