In this review, we assessed endoscopic imaging using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). As white-light endoscopy, the current standard for gastrointestinal endoscopy, is limited to morphology, Raman endoscopy using surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticles (SERS endoscopy) was introduced as one of the novel functional modalities. SERS endoscopy has multiplex capability and high sensitivity with low autofluorescence and photobleaching. As a result, multiple molecular characteristics of the lesion can be accurately evaluated in real time while performing endoscopy using SERS probes and appropriate instrumentation. Especially, recently developed dual modality of fluorescence and SERS endoscopy offers easy localization with identification of multiple target molecules. For clinical use of SERS endoscopy in the future, problems of limited field of view and cytotoxicity should be addressed by fusion imaging, topical administration, and non-toxic coating of nanoparticles. We expect SERS endoscopic imaging would be an essential endoscopic technique for diagnosis of cancerous lesions, assessment of resection margins and evaluation of therapeutic responses.