Ajai Kumar Srivastav, Sanjay Kumar Srivastava, Diwakar Mishra, Sunil Kumar Srivastav
June 17, 2011
In this study, an experiment was performed on Heteropneustes fossilis for short-term (1.76 mg/L chlorpyrifos, i.e., 0.8 of 96-h LC 50 ) and long-term (0.44 mg/L chlorpyrifos, i.e., 0.2 of 96-h LC 50 ) exposure. The fish were sacrificed after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in the short-term experiment and after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days in the long-term experiment. On these intervals, blood was collected and analysis of serum calcium was done. Ultimobranchial glands were also fixed for histological study. The serum calcium levels of H. fossilis exhibit a decline after 24 h following exposure to chlorpyrifos. This decrease continues until the end of the experiment (96 h). The serum calcium levels of chronically exposed fish exhibit a decrease on day 7. Thereafter, the levels continue to fall progressively until the end of the experiment (28 days). The ultimobranchial gland of chlorpyrifos treated fish exhibits no histological change up to 48 h. After 72 h, there is a decrease in the staining response of cytoplasm of the ultimobranchial cells. The nuclear volume of these cells is slightly decreased. After 96 h following chlorpyrifos exposure, these changes become exaggerated. In chlorpyrifos-treated fish there is no change in the histological structure of the ultimobranchial gland up to 14 days. After 21 days, the cytoplasm of ultimobranchial cells stain feebly and the nuclear volume of these cells exhibits a decrease. Following 28 days treatment, the nuclear volume of these cells records a further decrease and the gland depicts vacuolization and degeneration at certain areas.