Ejaz Aziz, Riffat Batool, Muhammad Usman Khan, Abdur Rauf, Wasim Akhtar, Mojtaba Heydari, Shazia Rehman, Tasmeena Shahzad, Ayesha Malik, Seyed Hamdollah Mosavat, Sergey Plygun, Mohammad Ali Shariati
July 22, 2020
Article number: 20190203
Objectives To review red algae bioactive compounds and their pharmaceutical applications. Content Seaweed sources are becoming attractive to be used in health and therapeutics. Among these red algae is the largest group containing bioactive compounds utilized in cosmetic, pharmaceutical, food industry, manure and various supplements in food formula. Various significant bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides (aginate, agar, and carrageenan), lipids and polyphenols, steroids, glycosides, flavanoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, triterpenoids, antheraquinones and cardiac glycosides have been reported in red algae. The red algae have rich nutritional components Different polysaccharides of red algae possess the antiviral potential namely agarans, carrageenan, alginate, fucan, laminaran and naviculan. Sulfated polysaccharides and carraginans of red algae are rich source of soluble fibers which can account for antitumor activities depending upon chemistry of various secondary metabolites and metabolism of cell line. Flavons-3-ols containing catechins from many red algae block the telomerase activity in colon cancer cells. Contraceptive agents were tested from red algae as a source for post-coital. Lectin of red algae showed pro-healing properties and anti-ulcerogenic activities. Carragenates from red algae also conferred a positive influence on diabetes. Red algae depicted a reducing effect on plasma lipids and obesity. Porphyran from red alga can act as anti-hyperlipidemic agent also reduces the apolipoprotein B100 via suppression of lipid synthesis in human liver. Summary The polyphenolic extracts of Laurencia undulate, Melanothamnus afaqhusainii and Solieria robusta extract show anti-inflammatory effects against multiple genera of devastating fungi. Antioxidants such as phlorotannins, ascorbic acids, tocopherols, carotenoids from red algae showed toxicity on some cancer cells without side effects. Red algae Laurencia nipponica was found insecticidal against mosquito larvae. Red algae fibers are very important in laxative and purgative activities. Gracilaria tenuistipitat resisted in agricultural lands polluted with cadmium and copper. Outlook In the recent decades biotechnological applications of red algae has been increased. Polysaccharides derived from red algae are important tool for formulation of drugs delivery system via nanotechnology.