Olalere Shittu, Olufunke Adenike Opeyemi, Muritala Kayode Salawu, Abeeb Adio Ashiru, Shadrach Ayodeji Medaiyese, Nnaemeka Asogwa, Kehinde Funmilola Sheba, Rafiu Adebisi Kadir, Olusola Isaac Aremu, Olusola Ajibaye
May 19, 2020
Background Recent ethnomedicinal studies on Bridelia ferruginea Benth (family Phyllanthaceae) as an antiplasmodial remedy have established its potency as a strong prophylactic and chemosuppressive agent. Human consumption of medicinal herbs without adequate evaluation of its efficacy and safety can result in grave physiological and pathological consequences. Therefore, this study assessed the antiplasmodial bioactivity, biochemical, hematological, histopathological and toxicity profile of the ethanolic stem bark extract of B. ferruginea in mice. Methods Ethanolic stem bark extract of B. ferruginea (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) were orally administered to Plasmodium berghei -infected mice in models and were subsequently observed for mortality, behavioral changes and signs of toxicity. Acute evaluation was experimented at 1,000 mg/kg for 28 days. Occult blood obtained from the euthanized mice were subjected to biochemical and hematological assays. A comprehensive assessment of the histology of the liver and kidney was also ascertained. The median lethal dose (LD 50 ) was determined and extrapolated using the regression equation obtained from the plot of the probits of mortalities (y) and the log of doses (log 10 C). Results Different concentrations of the phytochemical secondary metabolites were revealed. Antiplasmodial bioactivity was established at the 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of the herbal extract with a dearth in parasitemia at different days post-treatment. The 800 mg/kg group responded by exhibiting a dose-dependent decrease in parasitemia comparable with the chloroquine bi-phosphate group. Significant alterations in the histology of the liver and kidney of the 1,000 mg/kg group was documented. There was a reduction in the titers of LDH, ALT, AST, and urea in the treated group when compared with the control (p < 0.05). Antioxidant profiles were also highly significant with elevation in SOD, GPx, and CAT, but a reduction in MDA. LD 50 was established at 424 mg/kg. Conclusion B. ferruginea Benth (family Phyllanthaceae) is a potent antiplasmodial, antioxidant, regenerative and ameliorative herbal remedy if administered in controlled dosage.