Communication between cells is a basic requirement for proper nervous system function. Glial cells execute various functions, operating in close coordination with neurons. Recent research revealed that cell communication is mediated by the exchange of extracellular vesicles, which are also secreted by glial cells and neurons. Extracellular vesicles comprise exosomes and microvesicles, which deliver proteins and ribonucleic acids to target cells. As a result of transfer, the vesicle cargo components can modulate the phenotype of recipient cells. Here, we discuss the characteristics and functions of extracellular vesicles in general and in particular in the central nervous system, where myelinating oligodendrocytes release exosomes in response to neurotransmitter signals, which are internalized by neurons and exhibit neuroprotective functions.