A detailed analysis of synapses as connecting elements between neurons is of central importance to understand the brain’s cognitive performance and its constraints. Nowadays, state-of-the-art optical methods make possible to localize individual molecules in a living cell. In particular, the dynamics of molecular composition can be evaluated in smallest neuronal compartments, such as pre- and postsynaptic membrane. The monitoring of the distribution of receptors, ion channels, and adhesion molecules over time revealed their continuous stochastic motion. This is surprising, since the synapses are considered as accumulation sites anchoring these molecules. The direct manipulation of the lateral dynamics of glutamate receptors, in combination with classical electrophysiological approaches, demonstrated that such molecular dynamics is necessary for the induction of synaptic plasticity and, in turn, is influenced by synaptic activity. Therefore, the molecular dynamics requires further studies in the context of the brain function in health and disease.