This review outlines behavioral and neurobiological aspects of extinction learning, with a focus on nonaversive experience. The extinction of acquired behavior is crucial for readaptation to our environment and plays a central role in therapeutic interventions. However, behavior that has been extinguished can reappear owing to context changes. In the first part of the article, we examine experimental strategies aimed at reducing behavioral recovery after extinction of nonaversive experience, focusing on extinction learning in multiple contexts, reminder cues, and the informational value of contexts. In the second part, we report findings from human imaging studies and studies with rodents on the neural correlates of extinction and response recovery in nonaversive learning, with a focus on ventromedial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and neurotransmitter systems.