Ahti Niilisk, Mart Moppel, Martti Pärs, Ilmo Sildos, Taavi Jantson, Tea Avarmaa, Raivo Jaaniso, Jaan Aarik
March 1, 2006
The Raman spectroscopy method was used for structural characterization of TiO2 thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on fused silica and single-crystal silicon and sapphire substrates. Using ALD, anatase thin films were grown on silica and silicon substrates at temperatures 125–425 °C. At higher deposition temperatures, mixed anatase and rutile phases grew on these substrates. Post-growth annealing resulted in anatase-to-rutile phase transitions at 750 °C in the case of pure anatase films. The films that contained chlorine residues and were amorphous in their as-grown stage transformed into anatase phase at 400 °C and retained this phase even after annealing at 900 °C. On single crystal sapphire substrates, phase-pure rutile films were obtained by ALD at 425 °C and higher temperatures without additional annealing. Thin films that predominantly contained brookite phase were grown by PLD on silica substrates using rutile as a starting material.