S. Kopp, D. Behrend, O. Specht, D. Trostmann, M. Rosentritt, P. Ottl, J. Geis-Gerstorfer, M. Warkentin
February 15, 2014
Focused on tissue interactions and the properties of the materials themselves, the causes of dental implant failure can be analysed successfully using methods developed within materials science. This will be exemplified by three failing implants. The implants represent a broad range of materials (titanium, PEEK, zirconium dioxide) and geometries (screw, cylindrical, disc). Materials and methods: Following appropriate specimen collection and preparation, EDX, ESEM, light microscopy and ultrasound examinations were performed. Since only the titanium implant exhibited osseointegration, the implant-bone interface of this implant was additionally analysed by FIB-TEM. Results: The absence of bone tissue residue on the zirconium dioxide and PEEK implants was confirmed by all imaging methods. Complete osseointegration is demonstrable only for a complete fragment of the titanium implant resected from the jaw bone, with a bone-to-metal contact of 82.5 %. Conclusion: A bioactive interaction with the target tissues was found only for the titanium implant. The loss of the titanium implant examined was due to a material failure. High-frequency ultrasonic microscopy has proven a suitable tool for the assessment of osseointegration. A reduced sample preparation effort and an ability to use ultrasound in situ would suggest that ultrasonic microscopy technology is a suitable technology for failure analysis.