Ahmad Nawaz, Aneek Kuila, Nirmalendu Sekhar Mishra, Kah Hon Leong, Lan Ching Sim, Pichiah Saravanan, Min Jang
October 5, 2019
Conventional metal oxide and its composites embrace the long-standing problem of using the combined visible and near-infrared (NIR) light. Doping with suitable impurities of metal, nonmetal, or its combinations for visible light enhancement is very well studied. However, the quantum efficiency of these photocatalysts does not produce an exciting appearance toward visible and NIR light when irradiated through either artificial or natural light. Furthermore, owing to the limited availability of solar light, challenges arise from the implication of these developed nano-photocatalysts. Therefore, the hybridized concept was developed for the effective use of either full or partial solar spectrum, even functioning in dark conditions. The present review focuses on the challenges of hybridized photocatalysts in storing and discharging the harvested photons obtained from the solar spectrum. The review vividly emphasizes the evolution of light-driven nanomaterials since its innovation and significant breakthroughs in brief, while a detailed presentation of the implications of hybrid photocatalysts for full solar applications, including the mechanistic features, charging-discharging characteristics, work function, charge carrier mobility, and interactions, follows. The article also delivers the substantial contribution of these materials in regard to energy and environmental application.