Jie Pan, Fangfang Zhong, Xiangshi Tan
September 17, 2013
Nitric oxide (NO), a signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system, has been receiving increasing attention since Furchgott, Ignarro, and Murad were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for the discovery in 1998. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), as an NO receptor, is a key metalloprotein in mediating NO signaling transduction. sGC is activated by NO to catalyze the conversion of guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP) to cyclic guanylate monophosphate (cGMP). The dysfunction of NO signaling results in many pathological disorders, including several cardiovascular diseases, such as arterial hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, heart failure and so on. Significant advances in its structure, function, mechanism, and physiological and pathological roles have been made throughout the past 15 years. We herein review the progress of sGC on structural, functional investigations, as well as the proposed activation/deactivation mechanism. The heme-dependent sGC stimulators and heme-independent sGC activators have also been summarized briefly.