Fumin Xue, Sheng-Tao Yang, Lingyun Chen, Xiao Wang, Zhenhua Wang
September 15, 2015
The sp 2 carbon nanomaterials have fantastic properties and hold great potential in diverse areas, including electronics, energy, environment, biomedicine, and so on. The wide applications of sp 2 carbon nanomaterials require the thorough investigations on their biosafety. The quantification of sp 2 carbon nanomaterials is the first and crucial step in the biosafety evaluations. In this review, we summarized the quantification technologies for sp 2 carbon nanomaterials and compared the advantages/disadvantages of these technologies. The pharmacokinetics, the biodistribution, and the ecological uptake of sp 2 carbon nanomaterials were achieved by using the quantification technologies. Furthermore, the influence factors such as surface modification, size, shape, and exposure pathway were concerned, and the general rules in the biological behaviors of sp 2 carbon nanomaterials were proposed. The implications to the biomedical applications and biosafety evaluations of sp 2 carbon nanomaterials are discussed.