Mohd Azam Mohd Adnan, Nurhidayatullaili Muhd Julkapli, Sharifah Bee Abd Hamid
February 24, 2016
Zinc oxide (ZnO) is one of the most widely used benchmark standard photocatalysts in the field of environmental applications. However, the large band gap of ZnO and the massive recombination of photogenerated charge carriers, especially in its nanosize, limit the overall photocatalytic efficiency. This can be further overcome by modifying the electronic band structure of ZnO by hybridization with a narrow band gap material, including metal, metal oxide, carbon based, and polymeric based. Indeed, ZnO hybridization with the respective materials contributed to its sensitizer by shifting the absorption wavelength to the visible region of the spectrum. This review encompasses several advancements made in the mentioned aspects, and also some of the new physical insights related to the charge transfer events, such as charge carrier generation, trapping, detrapping, and their transfer to surface, are discussed for each strategy of the hybrid ZnO. The synergistic effects in the mixed polymorphs of ZnO and also the theories proposed for their enhanced activity are reported. The review also highlights the potential application of ZnO hybrid for different kinds of pollutants from different wastewater sources.