Alla B. Salmina, Yulia K. Komleva, Olga L. Lopatina, Natalia V. Kuvacheva, Yana V. Gorina, Yulia A. Panina, Yulia A. Uspenskaya, Marina M. Petrova, Irina V. Demko, Anna S. Zamay, Natalia A. Malinovskaya
December 22, 2014
Neuroinflammation is as an important component of pathogenesis in many types of brain pathology. Immune mechanisms regulate neuroplasticity, memory formation, neurogenesis, behavior, brain development, cognitive functions, and brain metabolism. It is generally believed that essential homeostatic functions of astrocytes – astroglia-neuron metabolic coupling, gliovascular control, regulation of proliferation, and migration of cells in the neurogenic niches – are compromised in neuroinflammation resulting in excitotoxicity, neuronal and glial cell death, and alterations of intercellular communication. Viral neuroinfection, release of non-coding RNAs from the cells at the sites of brain injury or degeneration, and application of siRNA or RNA aptamers as therapeutic agents would require dsRNA-sensing pathways in the cells of neuronal and non-neuronal origin. In this review, we analyze the data regarding the role of astrocytes in dsRNA-initiated innate immune response in neuroinflammation and their contribution to progression of neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental pathology.