Ahmed A. Moustafa, Srinivasa Chakravarthy, Joseph R. Phillips, Jacob J. Crouse, Ankur Gupta, Michael J. Frank, Julie M. Hall, Marjan Jahanshahi
March 16, 2016
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by a range of motor symptoms. Besides the cardinal symptoms (tremor, bradykinesia/akinesia, and rigidity), PD patients also show other motor deficits, including gait disturbance, speech deficits, and impaired handwriting. However, along with these key motor symptoms, PD patients also experience cognitive deficits in attention, executive function, working memory, and learning. Recent evidence suggests that these motor and cognitive deficits of PD are not completely dissociable, as aspects of cognitive dysfunction can impact motor performance in PD. In this article, we provide a review of behavioral and neural studies on the associations between motor symptoms and cognitive deficits in PD, specifically akinesia/bradykinesia, tremor, gait, handwriting, precision grip, and speech production. This review paves the way for providing a framework for understanding how treatment of cognitive dysfunction, for example cognitive rehabilitation programs, may in turn influence the motor symptoms of PD.