Olga L. Lopatina, Natalia A. Malinovskaya, Yulia K. Komleva, Yana V. Gorina, Anton N. Shuvaev, Raisa Y. Olovyannikova, Olga S. Belozor, Olga A. Belova, Haruhiro Higashida, Alla B. Salmina
June 1, 2019
The excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance controls the synaptic inputs to prevent the inappropriate responses of neurons to input strength, and is required to restore the initial pattern of network activity. Various neurotransmitters affect synaptic plasticity within neural networks via the modulation of neuronal E/I balance in the developing and adult brain. Less is known about the role of E/I balance in the control of the development of the neural stem and progenitor cells in the course of neurogenesis and gliogenesis. Recent findings suggest that neural stem and progenitor cells appear to be the target for the action of GABA within the neurogenic or oligovascular niches. The same might be true for the role of neuropeptides (i.e. oxytocin) in neurogenic niches. This review covers current understanding of the role of E/I balance in the regulation of neuroplasticity associated with social behavior in normal brain, and in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. Further studies are required to decipher the GABA-mediated regulation of postnatal neurogenesis and synaptic integration of newly-born neurons as a potential target for the treatment of brain diseases.