Farzad Salehpour, Sevda Gholipour-Khalili, Fereshteh Farajdokht, Farzin Kamari, Tomasz Walski, Michael R. Hamblin, Joseph O. DiDuro, Paolo Cassano
December 9, 2019
The application of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) for neuronal stimulation is studied in different animal models and in humans, and has shown to improve cerebral metabolic activity and blood flow, and provide neuroprotection via anti-inflammatory and antioxidant pathways. Recently, intranasal PBMT (i-PBMT) has become an attractive and potential method for the treatment of brain conditions. Herein, we provide a summary of different intranasal light delivery approaches including a nostril-based portable method and implanted deep-nasal methods for the effective systemic or direct irradiation of the brain. Nostril-based i-PBMT devices are available, using either lasers or light emitting diodes (LEDs), and can be applied either alone or in combination to transcranial devices (the latter applied directly to the scalp) to treat a wide range of brain conditions such as mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, cerebrovascular diseases, depression and anxiety as well as insomnia. Evidence shows that nostril-based i-PBMT improves blood rheology and cerebral blood flow, so that, without needing to puncture blood vessels, i-PBMT may have equivalent results to a peripheral intravenous laser irradiation procedure. Up to now, no studies were conducted to implant PBMT light sources deep within the nose in a clinical setting, but simulation studies suggest that deep-nasal PBMT via cribriform plate and sphenoid sinus might be an effective method to deliver light to the ventromedial part of the prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex. Home-based i-PBMT, using inexpensive LED applicators, has potential as a novel approach for neurorehabilitation; comparative studies also testing sham, and transcranial PBMT are warranted.