In this review, a series of experiments is presented, in which γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)ergic and glutamatergic effects on dopamine function in the rat nigrostriatal and mesolimbic system was systematically assessed after pharmacological challenge with GABA A receptor (R) and and N-methyl d -aspartate (NMDA)R agonists and antagonists. In these studies, [ 123 I]iodobenzamide binding to the D 2/3 R was mesured in nucleus accumbens (NAC), caudateputamen (CP), substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), frontal (FC), motor (MC) and parietal cortex (PC) as well as anterior (aHIPP) and posterior hippocampus (pHIPP) with small animal SPECT in baseline and after injection of either the GABA A R agonist muscimol (1 mg/kg), the GABA A R antagonist bicuculline (1 mg/kg), the NMDAR agonist d -cycloserine (20 mg/kg) or the NMDAR antagonist amantadine (40 mg/kg). Muscimol reduced D 2/3 R binding in NAC, CP, SN/VTA, THAL and pHIPP, while, after amantadine, decreases were confined to NAC, CP and THAL. In contrast, d -cycloserine elevated D 2/3 R binding in NAC, SN/VTA, THAL, frontal cortex, motor cortex, PC, aHIPP and pHIPP, while, after bicuculline, increases were confined to CP and THAL. Taken together, similar actions on regional dopamine levels were exterted by the GABA A R agonist and the NMDAR antagonist on the one side and by the GABA A R antagonist and the NMDAR agonist on the other, with agonistic action, however, affecting more brain regions. Thereby, network analysis suggests different roles of GABA A Rs and NMDARs in the mediation of nigrostriatal, nigrothalamocortical and mesolimbocortical dopamine function.