Dunja Perić, Paul A. Bartley, Lawrence Davis, Ali Ulvi Uzer, Cahit Gürer
September 20, 2014
Lignin is a coproduct of biofuel and paper industries, which exhibits binding qualities when mixed with water. Lignin is an ideal candidate for a sustainable stabilization of unpaved roads. To this end, an experimental program was devised and carried out to quantify effects of lignin on compaction and early age shear strength behaviors of sand. Samples were prepared by mixing a particular type of coproduct called calcium lignosulfonate (CaL) with sand and water. Based on the extensive analyses of six series of strength tests, it was found that a normalized cohesion increased with an increasing normalized areas ratio. Normalizations were carried out by dividing the cohesion and area ratio by gravimetric CaL content whereby the area ratio was obtained by dividing the portion of the cross-sectional area occupied with lignosulfonate-water (CaL-W) paste by the total cross-sectional area. While the increase in the normalized cohesion eventually leveled out, the cohesion peaked at 6% of CaL. Thus, sand-CaL-water (S-CaL-W) mixes sustained larger shear stresses than dry sand for a range of normal stresses below the limiting normal stress. Consequently, the early age behavior indicates that adding CaL-W to sand is clearly beneficial in the near-surface applications in dry sand.