Jarno Gauffin, Tiina Hankama, Hannu Kautiainen, Marja Arkela-Kautiainen, Pekka Hannonen, Maija Haanpää
January 1, 2012
Background and purpose Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain syndrome, which affects up to 5% of the general population. The aetiology of FM is unclear. The lack of specific diagnostic laboratory tests or imaging options combined with the severe burden on both patients and society caused by the FM syndrome demands the development of valid instruments able to measure the current health status of the FM patients. The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) is the most widely used of these instruments. Our objective was to translate the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) into Finnish and evaluate its validity in Finnish speaking FM patients. Methods FIQ was translated by two bilingual researchers into the Finnish version (Finn-FIQ) and linked to the categories of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Finn-FIQ was administered to 162 patients who had prior fibromyalgia diagnoses M79.0 according to ICD-10 year 2006 version. They also filled in the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), the Rand 36-item Health Survey (RAND-36), the Beck Depression Inventory IA (BDIIA), the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ), and they assessed their general well-being on a 0–100 mm visual analogue scale while attending a clinical check-up visit. Internal consistency was estimated according to Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency. An exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify related items and to show construct validity. Correlation coefficients were calculated by the Spearman method. Results From the 162 participants 153 were female and 9 male, 119 (73%) had an active job or were students, 21 (13%) were unemployed, 16 (10%) were retired and 6 (4%) were on sick leave. The mean age was 47 years. The internal consistency value (95% CI) was 0.90 for the overall Finn-FIQ. The factor analysis performed for construct analysis showed that Finn-FIQ was loaded on 4 factors. These factors were loaded on components of ICF and explained 69% of total variance. Significant correlations were obtained between patients own assessments of general well-being and Finn-FIQ total score ( r = 0.64 [95% CI 0.53–0.73]) and also between Finn-FIQ total score and HAQ total score ( r = 0.56 [95% CI 0.44–0.66]). Finn-FIQ questions had significant correlations with RAND-36 domains. Conclusion Finn-FIQ is a valid and feasible instrument to mirror the functioning of FM patients according to its internal consistency, correlation to general well-being, convergent validity and response rate. It covers the main components of the ICF framework hence reflecting the whole spectrum of functioning. Implications In our study Finn-FIQ was proven as a valid instrument with Finnish speaking FM patients. Original FIQ and other validated translations have already confirmed their place in fibromyalgia research. After this study Finnish fibromyalgia research can be included in those using the best-known instrument in validated form and native language. Current study showed also Finn-FIQ’s ability to measure functioning of the FM patients, and it had good applicability among Finnish speaking patients. Therefore it can be recommended also for monitoring individual FM patients and their functioning for example during different treatment trials.