Frank J. Hall, Zhongshan Li, Caroline T. Parnass, Miroslav Rozložník
October 28, 2017

### Abstract

This paper builds upon the results in the article “G-matrices, J-orthogonal matrices, and their sign patterns", Czechoslovak Math. J. 66 (2016), 653-670, by Hall and Rozloznik. A number of further general results on the sign patterns of the J-orthogonal matrices are proved. Properties of block diagonal matrices and their sign patterns are examined. It is shown that all 4 × 4 full sign patterns allow J-orthogonality. Important tools in this analysis are Theorem 2.2 on the exchange operator and Theorem 3.2 on the characterization of J-orthogonal matrices in the paper “J-orthogonal matrices: properties and generation", SIAM Review 45 (3) (2003), 504-519, by Higham. As a result, it follows that for n ≤4 all n×n full sign patterns allow a J-orthogonal matrix as well as a G-matrix. In addition, the 3 × 3 sign patterns of the J-orthogonal matrices which have zero entries are characterized.