The intention of this article is to give a concise overview on current applications of micro-optical components in lighting, including general lighting, automotive lighting, projection, and display backlighting. Regarding the light sources, the focus of this paper is on inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and the characteristic problems encountered with them. Lasers, laser diodes, and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are out of scope of this paper. Micro-optical components for current applications of inorganic LEDs may be categorized essentially into three classes: First, components for light shaping, i.e., adjusting the intensity distribution to a desired target; second, components for light homogenization with respect to space and color, and third, large-area micro-optical elements. These large-area elements comprise micro-optical slabs and sheets for guiding, reflection, and refraction of light and are designed without regard to particular details of type, design, arrangement, and layout of the individual light emitters. References are given to textbooks and review articles to guide the interested reader to further and more detailed studies on the problems discussed here.