Recent advances in medical technology, not with standing their potential blessings, have engendered a number of new ethical problems. Questions raised by rapidly improving techniques for the transplantation of human organs and body tissues have become especially urgent. The article tries to clarify and evaluate the main arguments advanced for and against different arrangements in this area. The first part concentrates on the problem of acquisition. The ethical status of eight ways of obtaining human body parts is investigated. The cases are derived from combinations of three criteria: whether the donor consents or not; whether or not he/she is alive or dead at the time of extraction; and whether or not donors (or their heirs) are compensated. In the second part, the problem of adjudication is treated. Three possible arrangements are examined: market, organ bank, and club.