Microtubules are highly polar structures and are characterized by high anisotropy and stiffness. In neurons, they play a key role in the directional transport of vesicles and organelles. In the neuronal projections called axons, they form parallel bundles, mostly oriented with the plus-end towards the axonal termination. Their physico-chemical properties have recently attracted attention as a potential candidate in sensing, processing and transducing physical signals generated by mechanical forces. Here, we discuss the main evidence supporting the role of microtubules as a signal hub for axon growth in response to a traction force. Applying a tension to the axon appears to stabilize the microtubules, which, in turn, coordinate a modulation of axonal transport, local translation and their cross-talk. We speculate on the possible mechanisms modulating microtubule dynamics under tension, based on evidence collected in neuronal and non-neuronal cell types. However, the fundamental question of the causal relationship between these mechanisms is still elusive because the mechano-sensitive element in this chain has not yet been identified.