This network meta-analysis (NMA) aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of different pharmacological treatments for idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). Thirty-four relevant studies were extracted from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane database, and MEDLINE. Treatment with tacrolimus (TAC), cyclophosphamide (CTX), mycophenolate mofetil, chlorambucil (CHL), cyclosporin A (CSA), steroids, rituximab (RTX), and conservative therapy were compared. Outcomes were measured using remission rate and incidence of side effects. Summary estimates were expressed as the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The quality of findings was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. In the direct meta-analysis for comparison of complete remission (CR) rate, the curative effect of RTX is inferior to CTX (OR 0.37; CI 0.18, 0.75). In the NMA of CR rate, the results showed that the curative effects of CTX, CHL, and TAC were significantly higher than those of the control group. The efficacy of RTX is not inferior to the CTX (OR 0.81; CI 0.32, 2.01), and the level of evidence was moderate; CSA was not as effective as RTX, and the difference was statistically significant with moderate evidence (OR 2.98, CI 1.00, 8.91). In summary, we recommend CTX and RTX as the first-line drug for IMN treatment.