An increasing number of women is treated with adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil therapy for breast cancer. The effects of the chemotherapy on many laboratory tests are, however, inadequately known. This study investigates the effects of the treatment on various laboratory tests. Fifteen premenopausal women receiving adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy and optional radiotherapy were included in the study. Common hormonal, biochemical, hematological, protein and lipid laboratory tests were taken serially during a 10-month follow-up. Twelve women became amenorrheic. Their serum follicle stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone concentrations increased accordingly. Other serum hormones (testosterone, androstenedione, sex hormone-binding globulin, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, cortisol, parathyroid hormone and thyroid hormones) changed only slightly. Hemoglobin concentration and white blood cell count decreased slightly. Serum alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, angiotensin-converting enzyme, amylase, glucose, potassium, phosphate, urea and triglycerides concentrations increased slightly whereas serum bilirubin, haptoglobin, and immunoglobulin A and M decreased slightly. Serum α 1 -antitrypsin fluctuated around the baseline concentration. Other test results remained at their pretreatment concentrations. With the exception of increases in serum gonadotrophins, the changes observed were slight and the mean concentrations remained within reference limits. Therefore, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil adjuvant treatment is unlikely to complicate the diagnosis of other diseases.