We compared several “new” risk factors (autoantibodies to oxidatively modified low density lipoprotein (LDL), sialic acid content of LDL, bilirubin and C-reactive protein) with “conventional” risk factors (apolipoprotein (apo) AI, AII and B, lipoprotein(a), triglycerides, and total, LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol) for the presence and the extent of coronary or carotid atherosclerosis. Forty male patients with angiographically proven coronary atherosclerosis and 31 male patients with ultrasound-proven extracranial carotid atherosclerosis were compared to 40 age matched (53 ± 5 years) healthy males as control subjects, with negative parental history of atherosclerosis, no clinical signs of systemic or organ-related ischemic disease and normal extracranial carotid arteries. The apo B/apo AII ratio most powerfully indicated the presence and the extent of coronary or carotid atherosclerosis. Elevated lipoprotein(a) contributed significant additional information in the assessment of the atherosclerotic risk. Increase in Creactive protein indicated the presence (but not the extent) of coronary or carotid atherosclerosis with a similar power as lipoprotein(a). Decreased values of total bilirubin indicated the presence of atherosclerosis only in smokers. Autoantibodies to oxidatively modified LDL additionally described the atherosclerotic process, but were less important than apolipoproteins, lipoprotein(a), C-reactive protein or bilirubin. Sialic acid content of LDL added no information to the parameters discussed above. We demonstrated that in male patients apolipoproteins, especially the apo B/apo AII ratio, were better indicators of the presence and the extent of coronary or carotid atherosclerosis than C-reactive protein, bilirubin, autoantibodies to oxidatively modified LDL or sialic acid content of LDL.