Background: Although there have been some epidemiological studies on the effects of diet and nutritional status on cervical carcinogenesis, evidence for a protective effect of antioxidant micronutrients against cervical neoplasia is insufficient. The relationship between serum antioxidant micronutrients and sociodemographic factors and the risk of cervical neoplasia was investigated in this multi-center, case-control study. Methods: The study population included women with histopathological diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1 (n=147), CIN 2/3 (n=177), cervical cancer (n=160), and a control group (n=378). Epidemiological data were collected and the serum concentrations of β-carotene, lycopene, zeaxanthin plus lutein, retinol, α-tocopherol, and γ-tocopherol were measured using reverse-phase, gradient high-pressure liquid chromatography. Results: Cervical cancer was found to be associated with older age, increased body mass index, and lower socioeconomic status as measured by education level and income. The mean serum concentrations of β-carotene, lycopene, zeaxanthin plus lutein, retinol, α-tocopherol, and γ-tocopherol of cervical cancer patients were significantly lower than those of control subjects. Odds ratio adjusted for age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and human papillomavirus infection status revealed a significant gradient of decreasing risk of CIN 1, CIN 2/3, and cervical cancer with increasing serum concentrations of most antioxidant micronutrients. Conclusions: The results of this study show an inverse association between serum antioxidant micronutrient concentrations and the risk of cervical neoplasia. These results suggest that antioxidant micronutrients play a role in the prevention of cervical carcinogenesis. Clin Chem Lab Med 2009;47:1005–12.