Background: Golgi protein-73 (GP73) and fucosylated proteins have been proposed as potential serum markers for liver disease and/or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of serum GP73 and fucosylated hemopexin (Fuc-HPX) with α-fetoprotein (AFP) and with protein induced by the absence of vitamin K or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) for diagnosing chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and HCC. Methods: The concentration of GP73 in human sera was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay employing mouse monoclonal and rabbit polyclonal GP73 antibodies. Fuc-HPX was detected using a lectin chemiluminescence-linked immunosorbent assay using a mouse monoclonal anti-hemopexin antibody and Aleuria aurantia lectin. A total of 229 serum samples from patients with chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and HCC, as well as from normal individuals were evaluated using these four markers. Results: GP73 and Fuc-HPX showed significantly higher values in samples from patients with cirrhosis and HCC than in samples from patients with hepatitis and from normal individuals. The areas under the curves (AUCs) for GP73, Fuc-HPX, AFP, and PIVKA-II were 0.90, 0.77, 0.74, and 0.88, respectively, for liver cirrhosis and HCC samples vs. hepatitis and normal samples. The AUCs of GP73, Fuc-HPX, AFP, and PIVKA-II were 0.78, 0.72, 0.81, and 0.90, respectively, for HCC samples vs. all other samples. Conclusions: PIVKA-II showed superior sensitivity and specificity for HCC compared with the other three markers. GP73 may be useful for detecting cirrhosis as a risk factor for HCC. Fuc-HPX showed inferior sensitivity and specificity compared to the other markers.