Background Most guidelines and experts recommend against performance of thrombophilia testing in general, and specifically against testing patients on pharmacological anticoagulants, due to substantially increased risk of false positive identification. For example, vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy affects protein C (PC) and protein S (PS), as well as some clotting assays (e.g. as used to investigate activated PC resistance [APCR]). Although heparin may also affect clotting assays, most commercial methods contain neutralisers to make them ‘insensitive’ to therapeutic levels. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) also affect a wide variety of thrombophilia assays, although most reported data has employed artificial in vitro spiked samples. Methods In the current report, data from our facility for the past 2.5 years has been assessed for all ‘congenital thrombophilia’ related tests, as evaluated against patient anticoagulant status. We processed 10,571 ‘thrombophilia’ related test requests, including antithrombin (AT; n=3470), PC (n=3569), PS (n=3585), APCR (n=2359), factor V Leiden (FVL; n=2659), and prothrombin gene mutation (PGM; n=2103). Results As expected, VKA therapy affected PC and PS, and despite manufacturer claims, also APCR. Most assays, as suggested by manufacturers, were largely resistant to heparin therapy. DOACs’ use was associated with falsely low APCR ratios (i.e. FVL-like effect) and somewhat unexpectedly, anti-Xa agents apixaban and rivaroxaban were also associated with lower AT and higher PS values. Conclusions It is concluded that ex-vivo data appears to confirm the potential for both false positive and false negative ‘thrombophilia’ events in patients on anticoagulant (including DOAC) treatment.