Objectives Urine sample manipulation including substitution, dilution, and chemical adulteration is a continuing challenge for workplace drug testing, abstinence control, and doping control laboratories. The simultaneous detection of sample manipulation and prohibited drugs within one single analytical measurement would be highly advantageous. Machine learning algorithms are able to learn from existing datasets and predict outcomes of new data, which are unknown to the model. Methods Authentic human urine samples were treated with pyridinium chlorochromate, potassium nitrite, hydrogen peroxide, iodine, sodium hypochlorite, and water as control. In total, 702 samples, measured with liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, were used. After retention time alignment within Progenesis QI, an artificial neural network was trained with 500 samples, each featuring 33,448 values. The feature importance was analyzed with the local interpretable model-agnostic explanations approach. Results Following 10-fold cross-validation, the mean sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value was 88.9, 92.0, 91.9, and 89.2%, respectively. A diverse test set (n=202) containing treated and untreated urine samples could be correctly classified with an accuracy of 95.4%. In addition, 14 important features and four potential biomarkers were extracted. Conclusions With interpretable retention time aligned liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry data, a reliable machine learning model could be established that rapidly uncovers chemical urine manipulation. The incorporation of our model into routine clinical or forensic analysis allows simultaneous LC-MS analysis and sample integrity testing in one run, thus revolutionizing this field of drug testing.