Objectives Microribonucleic acids (microRNA/miRNA/miR-) are predicted to be useful in the early diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of diabetic nephropathy (DN). We aimed to investigate the relationship of DN to miR-21-3p, miR-29a-3p, miR-29b-3p, miR-29c-3p, miR-126-3p, miR-129-1-3p, miR-137, miR-192-5p, miR-212-3p, and miR-320c. Methods There were 50 healthy controls and 100 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The diabetic patients were divided into three subgroups: normal to mildly increased (A1, n=51), moderately increased (A2, n=25), and severely increased (A3, n=24) albuminuria. The biochemical measurements were analysed using Roche Cobas 8000. The plasma miRNAs were analysed using RT-qPCR based on SYBR green chemistry. Results The relative expression of miR-21-3p was significantly lower in the (A3 p=0.005, 6.6-fold decrease) and DN (A1 + A3) (p=0.005, 6.6-fold decrease) groups compared to the controls. The relative expression of miR-192-5p was also significantly lower in the DN group (p=0.027, 2.4-fold decrease) compared to the controls. The area under curve value was 0.726 for miR-21-3p and 0.717 for miR-192-5p for distinguishing the DN group from the controls. Conclusions The decreased expressions of miR-21-3p and miR-192-5p are associated with the development of DN and may be potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of DN.